Having some knowledge about company's debt and liabilities is a key component in understanding the risk of a company. An understanding of these factors will aid in the decision to invest, not to invest, or to stay invested in a company. There are many metrics involved in gaining knowledge about the debt of a company, but for this article, I will look at Spectra Energy's (SE) total debt, total liabilities, debt ratios and WACC.
1. Total Debt = Long-Term Debt + Short-Term Debt
Total debt is the sum of long-term debt, which is debt that is due in one year or more, and short-term debt, which is any debt that is due within one year.
- 2008 - $8.290 billion + $1.757 billion = $10.047 billion
- 2009 - $8.947 billion + $971 million = $9.918 billion
- 2010 - $10.169 billion + $1.151 billion = $11.320 billion
- 2011 - $10.146 billion + $1.577 billion = $11.723 billion
- 2012 TTM - $9.892 billion + $2.598 billion = $12.490 billion
Spectra Energy's total debt has increased since 2008. In 2008, the company reported a total debt of $10.047 billion. In 2012 TTM, the company's total debt increased to $12.490 billion. Over the past 5 years, Spectra's total debt has increased by 24.32%.
2. Total Liabilities
Liabilities are a company's legal debts or obligations that arise during the course of business operations, so debts are one type of liability, but not all liabilities. Total liabilities is the combination of long-term liabilities, which are the liabilities that are due in one year or more, and short-term or current liabilities, which are any liabilities due within one year.
- 2008 - $16.384 billion
- 2009 - $16.954 billion
- 2010 - $18.877 billion
- 2011 - $20.073 billion
- 2012 TTM - $20.992 billion
Spectra's liabilities have also increased over the past 5 years. In 2008, the company reported liabilities at $16.384 billion; in 2012 TTM, the company reported liabilities at $20.992 billion. Over the past 5 years, Spectra Energy's liabilities have increased by 22.52%.
In analyzing Spectra Energy's total debt and liabilities, we can see that the company currently has a total debt of $12.490 billion and liabilities at $20.992 billion. Over the past five years, the total debt has increased by 24.32%, while total liabilities have increased by 22.52%. As the company's amount of debt and amount of liabilities have increased over the past 5 years, the next step will reveal if the company has the ability to pay them.
3. Total Debt to Total Assets Ratio = Total Debt / Total Assets
This is a metric used to measure a company's financial risk by determining how much of the company's assets have been financed by debt. It is calculated by adding short-term and long-term debt and then dividing by the company's total assets.
A debt ratio of greater than 1 indicates that a company has more total debt than assets; meanwhile, a debt ratio of less than 1 indicates that a company has more assets than total debt. Used along with other measures of financial health, the total- debt-to-total-assets ratio can help investors determine a company's level of risk.
- 2010 - $11.320 billion / $26.686 billion = 0.42
- 2011 - $11.723 billion / $28.138 billion = 0.42
- 2012 TTM - $12.490 billion / $29.582 billion = 0.42
Over the past three years Spectra Energy's total-debt-to-total-assets ratio has remained the same. Over the past 3 years the total-debt-to-total-assets ratio has remained at 0.42. This indicates that since 2010 the company has been adding total debt and assets at the same rate. As the number is currently below 1, this indicates that the company has more assets than total debt. As the number has remained the same , this states that the risk to the company regarding its debt to assets has been steady since 2010.
4. Debt ratio = Total Liabilities / Total Assets
Total liabilities divided by total assets. The debt ratio shows the proportion of a company's assets that is financed through debt. If the ratio is less than 0.5, most of the company's assets are financed through equity. If the ratio is greater than 0.5, most of the company's assets are financed through debt. Companies with high debt/asset ratios are said to be "highly leveraged." A company with a high debt ratio or that is "highly leveraged" could be in danger if creditors start to demand repayment of debt.
- 2010 - $18.877 billion / $26.686 billion = 0.71
- 2011 - $20.073 billion / $28.138 billion = 0.71
- 2012 TTM - $20.992 billion / $29.582 billion = 0.71
In looking at Spectra Energy's total liabilities to total assets ratio over the past three years, we can see that this ratio has also remained the same. As the numbers are above the 0.50 mark, this indicates that Spectra Energy has financed most of the company's assets through debt. As the number been consistent, so has the risk to the company.
5. Debt to Equity Ratio = Total Liabilities / Shareholders' Equity
The debt-to-equity ratio is another leverage ratio that compares a company's total liabilities with its total shareholders' equity. This is a measurement of how much suppliers, lenders, creditors and obligators have committed to the company versus what the shareholders have committed.
A high debt-to-equity ratio generally means that a company has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt. This can result in the company reporting volatile earnings. In general, a high debt-to-equity ratio indicates that a company may not be able to generate enough cash to satisfy its debt obligations, and therefore is considered a riskier investment.
- 2010 - $18.877 billion / $7.809 billion = 2.48
- 2011 - $20.073 billion / $8.065 billion = 2.49
- 2012 TTM - $20.992 billion / $8.590 billion = 2.44
Over the past three years, Spectra Energy's debt-to-equity ratio has decreased slightly. The ratio has dropped from 2.48 to 2.44. As the ratio is currently above 1, this indicates that suppliers, lenders, creditors and obligators have more invested than shareholders. 2.44 indicates a higher amount of risk for the company. As the ratio is above 1 and considered quite high, so is the risk for the company.
6. Capitalization Ratio = LT Debt / LT Debt + Shareholders' Equity
(LT Debt = Long-Term Debt)
The capitalization ratio tells the investors about the extent to which the company is using its equity to support its operations and growth. This ratio helps in the assessment of risk. Companies with a high capitalization ratio are considered to be risky because they are at a risk of insolvency if they fail to repay their debt on time. Companies with a high capitalization ratio may also find it difficult to get more loans in the future.
- 2010 - $10.169 billion / $17.978 billion = 0.57
- 2011 - $10.146 billion / $18.211 billion = 0.56
- 2012 TTM - $9.892 billion / $18.482 billion = 0.54
Over the past three years, Spectra Energy's capitalization ratio has decreased from 0.57 to 0.54. This implies that the company has had more equity compared with its long-term debt. As this is the case, the company has had more equity to support its operations and add growth through its equity. As the ratio is decreasing, financially this implies a slight decrease of risk to the company.
7. Cash Flow to Total Debt Ratio = Operating Cash Flow / Total Debt
This coverage ratio compares a company's operating cash flow with its total debt. This ratio provides an indication of a company's ability to cover total debt with its yearly cash flow from operations. The higher the percentage ratio, the better the company's ability to carry its total debt. The larger the ratio, the better a company can weather rough economic conditions.
- 2010 - $1.408 billion / $11.320 billion = 0.12
- 2011 - $2.186 billion / $11.723 billion = 0.19
- 2012 TTM - $1.953 billion / $12.490 billion = 0.16
Over the past three years, the cash flow to total debt ratio has increasing. The ratio has increased from 0.12 in 2010 to 0.16 in 2012 TTM. As the ratio is below 1, this implies that the company does not have the ability to cover its total debt with its yearly cash flow from operations.
Based on the five debt ratios listed above, we can see that the risk to the company has remained relatively the same over the past 3 years. Over the past 3 years the ratios indicate that the company's growth in assets has been the same as the company's increase in debt and liabilities. The next step will reveal how much the company will pay for the debt incurred.
Cost of Debt
The cost of debt is the effective rate that a company pays on its total debt.
As a company acquires debt through various bonds, loans and other forms of debt, the cost of debt metric is useful, because it gives an idea as to the overall rate being paid by the company to use debt financing.
This measure is also useful because it gives investors an idea as to the riskiness of the company compared with others. The higher the cost of debt the higher the risk.
8. Cost of debt (before tax) = Corporate Bond rate of company's bond rating.
- S&P rated Spectra Energy's bonds "BBB+"
- Spectra Energy's, Texas Eastn Transmission = 4.125%
- Current cost of Debt as of December 29th 2012 = 4.125%
According to the S&P rating guide, the "BBB" rating is - "Adequate capacity to meet financial commitments, but more subject to adverse economic conditions" Spectra Energy has a rating that meets this description.
9. Current tax rate (Income Tax total / Income before Tax)
- 2008 - $496 million / $1.625 billion = 30.52%
- 2009 - $353 million / $1.271 billion = 27.77%
- 2010 - $383 million / $1.506 billion = 25.43%
- 2011 - $487 million / $1.744 billion = 27.92%
- 2012 TTM - $404 million / $1.518 billion = 26.61%
2008 - 2012 TTM 5 year average = 27.65%
From 2007 - 2010, Spectra Energy has averaged a tax rate of 27.65%.
10. Cost of Debt (After Tax) = (Cost of debt before tax) (1 - tax rate)
The effective rate that a company pays on its current debt after tax.
- .04125 x (1 - .2765) = Cost of debt after tax
The cost of debt after tax for Spectra Energy is 2.98%
Cost of equity or R equity = Risk free rate + Beta equity (Average market return - Risk free rate)
The cost of equity is the return a firm theoretically pays to its equity investors, for example, shareholders, to compensate for the risk they undertake by investing in their company.
- Risk free rate = U.S. 10-year bond = 1.70% (Bloomberg)
- Average market return 1950 - 2012 = 7%
- Beta = (Google Finance) Spectra Energy's beta = 0.93
Risk free rate + Beta equity (Average market return - Risk free rate)
- 1.70 + 0.93 (7-1.70)
- 1.70 + 0.93 x 5.30
- 1.70 + 4.93 = 6.63%
Currently, Spectra Energy has a cost of equity or R Equity of 6.63%, so investors should expect to get a return of 6.63% per-year average over the long term on their investment to compensate for the risk they undertake by investing in this company.
(Please note that this is the CAPM approach to finding the cost of equity. Inherently, there are some flaws with this approach and that the numbers are very "general." This approach is based off of the S&P average return from 1950 - 2012 at 7%, the U.S. 10-year bond for the risk free rate which is susceptible to daily change and Google finance beta.)
Weighted Average Cost of Capital or WACC
The WACC calculation is a calculation of a company's cost of capital in which each category of capital is equally weighted. All capital sources such as common stock, preferred stock, bonds and all other long-term debt are included in this calculation.
As the WACC of a firm increases, and the beta and rate of return on equity increases, this states a decrease in valuation and a higher risk.
By taking the weighted average, we can see how much interest the company has to pay for every dollar it finances.
For this calculation, you will need to know the following listed below:
Tax Rate = 27.65% (Spectra Energy's five-year average Tax Rate)
Cost of Debt (before tax) or R debt = 4.125%
Cost of Equity or R equity = 6.63%
Debt (Total Liabilities) for 2011 or D = $20.992 billion
Stock Price = $26.97 (December 29th, 2012)
Outstanding Shares = 653.02 million
Equity = Stock price x Outstanding Shares or E = $17.611 billion
Debt + Equity or D+E = $38.603 billion
WACC = R = (1 - Tax Rate) x R debt (D/D+E) + R equity (E/D+E)
(1 - Tax Rate) x R debt (D/D+E) + R equity (E/D+E)
(1 - .2765) x .04125 x ($20.992/$38.603) + .0663 ($17.611/$38.603)
.7235 x .04125 x .5438 + .0663 x .4562
.0162 + .0302
Based on the calculations above, we can conclude that Spectra Energy pays 4.64% on every dollar that it finances, or 4.64 cents on every dollar. From this calculation, we understand that on every dollar the company spends on an investment, the company must make $.0464 plus the cost of the investment for the investment to be feasible for the company.
In analyzing Spectra Energy's total debt and liabilities, we can see that the company currently has a total debt of $12.490 billion and liabilities at $20.992 billion. Over the past five years, the total debt has increased by 24.32%, while total liabilities have increased by 22.52%.
Based on the five debt ratios listed above, we can see that the risk to the company has remained relatively the same over the past 3 years. Over the past 3 years the ratios indicate that the company's growth in assets has been the same as the company's increase in debt and liabilities.
As Spectra Energy's bond rating currently stands at "BBB+" Adequate capacity to meet financial commitments, but more subject to adverse economic conditions"
The CAPM approach for cost of equity states that shareholders need 6.63% average per year over a long period of time on their equity to make it worthwhile to invest in the company. This calculation is so based on the average market return between 1950 and 2012 at 7%.
The WACC calculation reveals that the company pays 4.64% on every dollar that it finances. As the current WACC of Spectra Energy is currently 4.64% and the beta is below average at 0.93, this implies that the company needs at least 4.64% on future investments and will have below average volatility moving forward.
Based on the calculations above, the company has increased its debt and liabilities over the past 3 years but currently has the capacity to make its debt payments and meet its tax obligations.
The analysis of Spectra Energy's debt and liabilities indicates a company that has increased it's total debt and liabilities over the past 3 years. The analysis also reveals that the company growth rate is increasing at the same rate as it's debt and liabilities when compared to the past 3 years. This indicates the same amount of risk to the company as three years ago. The Bond rating of "BBB+" by Standard and Poors indicates that the company has "Adequate capacity to meet financial commitments, but more subject to adverse economic conditions" The WACC reveals that Spectra Energy has the ability to add future investments and assets at around 4.64%. Currently, Spectra Energy has the ability to pay for its debts meet its obligations while adding growth.
All indications above reveal a company that has been very consistent in its growth and debt. As the company is growing and showing signs of strength it is not leveraging itself beyond its capabilities to grow. The Bond rating of "BBB+" states that the company has "Adequate capacity to meet financial commitments, but more subject to adverse economic conditions" The CAPM reveals that the investor needs 6.63% return, year over year over the long term on this investment for the investor to get good value on your investment. In my opinion, 6.63% is a reasonable expectation for a return year over year over the long term.