We're often asked: what's the difference between price and value? Well, price is what investors pay for a stock, while value is what the stock is actually worth. We like to find stocks that have prices well below there intrinsic value on the basis of a rigorous discounted cash-flow methodology. In DuPont's (DD) case, we think the firm is fairly valued at $57, meaninfully higher than where it is currently trading. Though the use of a margin of safety prompts us to label the company as "fairly valued" in that its current price falls within our fair value estimate range, we think this is still material valuation upside on the basis of our fair value estimate.
We think a comprehensive analysis of a firm's discounted cash-flow valuation and relative valuation versus industry peers is the best way to identify the most attractive stocks at the best time to buy. This process culminates in what we call our Valuentum Buying Index (click here for an in-depth presentation about our methodology), which ranks stocks on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the best. Essentially, we're looking for firms that overlap investment methodologies, thereby revealing the greatest interest by investors (we like firms that fall in the center of the diagram below). Remember: more interest = more buying = higher stock price.
If a company is undervalued both on a DCF and on a relative valuation basis, it scores high on our scale. DuPont posts a VBI score of 4 on our scale, reflecting our 'fairly valued' DCF assessment of the firm and its attractive relative valuation versus peers. We compare DuPont to peers Airgas (ARG), Dow Chemical (DOW), and Praxair (PX). In the spirit of transparency, we show how our strategy has performed recently:
Our Report on DuPont
• DuPont earns a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT, the highest possible mark on our scale. The firm has been generating economic value for shareholders for the past few years, a track record we view very positively. Return on invested capital (excluding goodwill) has averaged 15.8% during the past three years.
• The firm is trading at attractive valuation mulitples relative to peers, but our DCF process indicates a less compelling opportunity. We'd wait for a clearer signal on valuation before jumping into the firm's shares.
• DuPont has a good combination of strong free cash flow generation and manageable financial leverage. We expect the firm's free cash flow margin to average about 10.1% in coming years. Total debt-to-EBITDA was 2.2 last year, while debt-to-book capitalization stood at 59.6%.
• DuPont is targeting a long-term sales CAGR of 7% due to secular trends in food, energy and protection coupled with new products/applications. It expects a 12% long-term earnings CAGR due to higher margins on new products and ongoing productivity enhancements. If achieved, there is upside to our fair value estimate.
• The firm sports a very nice dividend yield of 4%. We expect the firm to pay out about 52% of next year's earnings to shareholders as dividends.
Economic Profit Analysis
The best measure of a firm's ability to create value for shareholders is expressed by comparing its return on invested capital (ROIC) with its weighted average cost of capital (OTC:WACC). The gap or difference between ROIC and WACC is called the firm's economic profit spread. DuPont's 3-year historical return on invested capital (without goodwill) is 15.8%, which is above the estimate of its cost of capital of 10.3%. As such, we assign the firm a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT. In the chart below, we show the probable path of ROIC in the years ahead based on the estimated volatility of key drivers behind the measure. The solid grey line reflects the most likely outcome, in our opinion, and represents the scenario that results in our fair value estimate.
Cash Flow Analysis
Firms that generate a free cash flow margin (free cash flow divided by total revenue) above 5% are usually considered cash cows. DuPont's free cash flow margin has averaged about 10.1% during the past 3 years. As such, we think the firm's cash flow generation is relatively STRONG. The free cash flow measure shown above is derived by taking cash flow from operations less capital expenditures and differs from enterprise free cash flow (FCFF), which we use in deriving our fair value estimate for the company. For more information on the differences between these two measures, please visit our website at Valuentum.com. At DuPont, cash flow from operations increased about 9% from levels registered two years ago, while capital expenditures expanded about 41% over the same time period.
The estimated fair value of $57 per share represents a price-to earnings (P/E) ratio of about 15.4 times last year's earnings and an implied EV/EBITDA multiple of about 11.1 times last year's EBITDA. Our model reflects a compound annual revenue growth rate of 1.9% during the next five years, a pace that is lower than the firm's 3-year historical compound annual growth rate of 8.2%. Our model reflects a 5-year projected average operating margin of 13.4%, which is above DuPont's trailing 3-year average. Beyond year 5, we assume free cash flow will grow at an annual rate of 3.3% for the next 15 years and 3% in perpetuity. For DuPont, we use a 10.3% weighted average cost of capital to discount future free cash flows. Please note that our forecasts are much lower than management's long-term targets.
Margin of Safety Analysis
Our discounted cash flow process values each firm on the basis of the present value of all future free cash flows. Although we estimate the firm's fair value at about $57 per share, every company has a range of probable fair values that's created by the uncertainty of key valuation drivers (like future revenue or earnings, for example). After all, if the future was known with certainty, we wouldn't see much volatility in the markets as stocks would trade precisely at their known fair values. Our ValueRisk™ rating sets the margin of safety or the fair value range we assign to each stock. In the graph below, we show this probable range of fair values for DuPont. We think the firm is attractive below $43 per share (the green line), but quite expensive above $71 per share (the red line). The prices that fall along the yellow line, which includes our fair value estimate, represent a reasonable valuation for the firm, in our opinion.
Future Path of Fair Value
We estimate DuPont's fair value at this point in time to be about $57 per share. As time passes, however, companies generate cash flow and pay out cash to shareholders in the form of dividends. The chart below compares the firm's current share price with the path of DuPont's expected equity value per share over the next three years, assuming our long-term projections prove accurate. The range between the resulting downside fair value and upside fair value in Year 3 represents our best estimate of the value of the firm's shares three years hence. This range of potential outcomes is also subject to change over time, should our views on the firm's future cash flow potential change. The expected fair value of $71 per share in Year 3 represents our existing fair value per share of $57 increased at an annual rate of the firm's cost of equity less its dividend yield. The upside and downside ranges are derived in the same way, but from the upper and lower bounds of our fair value estimate range.
Pro Forma Financial Statements