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1913 – A Bad Year for America

Karl Marx published his Communist Manifesto in 1848. It included 10 planks. Two of the ten planks were as follows:

  • A heavy progressive or graduated income tax.
  • Centralization of credit in the hands of the State by means of a national bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly.

The dates February 3, 1913 and December 24, 1913 framed a year which placed our country on a downward fiscal spiral. The United States had tinkered with an income tax during the Civil War and the 1890’s, but the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional. Until 1913, the U.S. government was restrained from overspending because it was completely reliant on tariffs and duties to generate revenue. The Sixteenth Amendment changed the game forever.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

When you give a Congressman a dollar, he’ll take a hundred billion. The initial tax rates of 1% to 7% were rather modest. That did not last long. The top tax rate reached 92% during the 1950s and today rates are still 500% to 1,000% higher than they were in 1913. The government is addicted to tax revenue. In 2007, they absconded $1.2 trillion in taxes from American individuals. Does anyone think that the bloated government bureaucracy spent these funds more efficiently or for a more beneficial purpose than its citizens could have?

Partial History of
U.S. Federal Income Tax Rates
Since 1913

Applicable
Year

Income
brackets

First
bracket

Top
bracket

Source

1913-1915

-

1%

7%

IRS

2003-2009

6 brackets

10%

35%

Tax Foundation

Source: Wikipedia

Without $1.2 trillion in individual tax revenue, Congressmen would not be able to add 9,200 earmarks to the current $400 billion Federal spending bill every year. This is how they waste your money:

  • $1.8 million to research “swine odor and manure management” in Ames, Iowa.
  • $41.5 million to upgrade presidential libraries of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson, and John F. Kennedy, according to the Heritage Foundation.
  • $2.9 million to study how to breed and raise shrimp on “shrimp farms.” Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) reports that since 1985 the federal government has allocated $71 million to the study of shrimp science.
  • $209,000 to improve blueberry production in Georgia, according to CAGW.
  • $200,000 for a tattoo removal program in Mission Hills, Calif.
  • $5.8 million for the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the Senate in Boston, according to the Heritage Foundation.
  • $6.6 million for Formosan subterranean termites, also according to Heritage.

Rothschild, J.P. Morgan & the Federal Reserve

Those few who can understand the system (check book money and credit) will either be so interested in its profits, or so dependent on it favors, that there will be little opposition from that class, while on the other hand, the great body of people mentally incapable of comprehending the tremendous advantage that capital derives from the system, will bear it burdens without complaint, and perhaps without even suspecting that the system is inimical to their interests.

-Rothschild’s Bros. of London

The House of Rothschild had been the dominant banking family in Europe for two centuries. They were known for making fortunes during Panics and War. Some claimed that they would cause Panics in order to take advantage of those who panicked. The Panic of 1907 was the used as the reason for creating the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis attributed the causes of the Panic of 1907 to financial manipulation from the existing banking establishment.

If Knickerbocker Trust would falter, then Congress and the public would lose faith in all trust companies and banks would stand to gain, the bankers reasoned.

J.P. Morgan (1837-1913)

In 1906, Frank Vanderlip Vice President of the Rockefeller owned National City Bank convinced many of New York's banking establishment that they needed a banker-controlled central bank that could serve the nation's financial system. Up to that time, the House of Morgan had filled that role. JP Morgan had initiated previous panics in order to initiate stronger control over the banking system. (Picture slimy Mr. Potter offering the members of the Bailey Building & Loan, 50 cents on the dollar for their shares during a bank panic in the classic movie Its A Wonderful Life.) Morgan initiated the Panic of 1907 by circulating rumors that the Knickerbocker Bank and Trust Co. of America was going broke, there was a run on the banks creating a financial crisis which began to solidify support for a central banking system. During this panic Paul Warburg, a Rothschild associate, wrote an essay called "A Plan for a Modified Central Bank" which called for a Central Bank in which 50% would be owned by the government and 50% by the nation's banks.

In November 1910 a secret conference took place on Jekyll Island off the coast of Georgia. Those in attendance were: JP Morgan, Paul Warburg, John D. Rockefeller, Bernard Baruch, Senator Nelson Aldrich, Colonel House, Frank Vanderlip, Benjamin Strong, Charles Norton, Jacob Schiff, and Henry Davison. Out of this meeting of the most powerful bankers and politicians in the country came the plan for a Central Bank. This conference was unknown until 1933. In 1935, Frank Vanderlip wrote in the Saturday Evening Post: "I do not feel it is any exaggeration to speak of our secret expedition to Jekyll Island as the occasion of the actual conception of what eventually became the Federal Reserve System."

Behind the scenes these powerful men were formulating the plan for a Federal Reserve System. There was no outcry from the public to implement this plan. The public knew nothing of this. The Aldrich Plan was renamed the Federal Reserve Act and pushed forward by Paul Warburg and Colonel House. Warburg essentially wrote the Act and pressured Congressmen to see his way or lose the next election. Colonel House, who had socialist leanings, was the top advisor to President Wilson.

The Glass Bill (the House version of the final Federal Reserve Act) had passed the House on September 18, 1913 by 287 to 85. On December 19, 1913, the Senate passed their version by a vote of 54-34. More than forty important differences in the House and Senate versions remained to be settled, and the opponents of the bill in both houses of Congress were led to believe that many weeks would elapse before the Conference bill would be taken up. The Congressmen prepared to leave Washington for the annual Christmas recess, assured that the Conference bill would not be brought up until the following year.

The creators of the bill then pulled the ultimate scam on the American public. In a single day, they ironed out all forty of the disputed passages in the bill and quickly brought it to a vote. On Monday, December 22, 1913, the bill was passed by the House 282-60 and the Senate 43-23. This meant that the single most important piece of legislation ever passed by the Senate was missing the votes of 26 Senators because it was passed during the Christmas recess. President Wilson, at the urging of Bernard Baruch, signed the bill on December 23, 1913. A few years later, President Wilson had second thoughts:

I am a most unhappy man. I have unwittingly ruined my country. A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit. Our system of credit is concentrated in the hands of a few men. We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated governments in the world--no longer a government of free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress of small groups of dominant men.

There were some brave Americans who did oppose this legislation and foresaw the devastation that it would lead to.

Throughout my public life I have supported all measures designed to take the Government out of the banking business. This bill puts the Government into the banking business as never before in our history. The powers vested in the Federal Reserve Board seen to me highly dangerous especially where there is political control of the Board. I should be sorry to hold stock in a bank subject to such dominations. The bill as it stands seems to me to open the way to a vast inflation of the currency. I had hoped to support this bill, but I cannot vote for it cause it seems to me to contain features and to rest upon principles in the highest degree menacing to our prosperity, to stability in business, and to the general welfare of the people of the United States.

-Senator Henry Cabot Lodge – Dec 17, 1913

From now on, depressions will be scientifically created.

-Congressman Charles A. Lindbergh Sr. - 1913

John Maynard Keynes, the current hero of the Obama administration and Paul Krugman, had this to say about the Federal Reserve in 1920.

Should government refrain from regulation (taxation), the worthlessness of the money become apparent and the fraud can no longer be concealed. By this means government may secretly and unobserved, confiscate the wealth of the people and not one man in a million will detect the theft.

Mandate from Hell

According to the Federal Reserve’s own website, their duties fall into four general areas:

  1. Conducting the nation's monetary policy by influencing the monetary and credit conditions in the economy in pursuit of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.
  2. Supervising and regulating banking institutions to ensure the safety and soundness of the nation's banking and financial system and to protect the credit rights of consumers.
  3. Maintaining the stability of the financial system and containing systemic risk that may arise in financial markets.
  4. Providing financial services to depository institutions, the U.S. government, and foreign official institutions, including playing a major role in operating the nation's payments system.

The American public was told that the Federal Reserve would eliminate any future bank panics. From 1913 through 1920, inflation increased at more than 10% per year as Wilson spent vast sums during World War I and its aftermath. From the early 1920s to 1929, the monetary supply expanded at a rapid pace and the nation experienced tremendous economic growth. Benjamin Strong, one of the participants at the secret conference on Jekyll Island, was the Federal Reserve head.

By the end of the 1920s, speculation and loose money had propelled asset and equity prices to unsustainable levels. The stock market crashed in 1929, and as the banks struggled with liquidity problems, the Federal Reserve cut the money supply. This was the greatest financial panic and economic collapse in American history so far - and it never could have happened without the Fed's intervention. The Fed caused the bubble with loose monetary policy. The Depression did not become Great until the Smoot Hawley Act in 1930 destroyed world trade and the raising of the top income tax rates from 25% to 63% in 1932 destroyed the incentive to earn money. Over 9,000 banks failed and a few of the old robber barons' banks managed to swoop in and grab up thousands of competitors for pennies on the dollar.

The Federal Reserve’s primary mandates were maximum employment, stable prices and moderate long-term interest rates. Their other chief function was to supervise and regulate banks to ensure the banking system is safe. Lets assess their success regarding their mandates:

  • Unemployment reached 25% during the Great Depression; attained levels above 10% in 1982; and will breach 10% in the next year. Grade: Failure.

  • Based on the chart above and the CPI data since the Federal Reserve’s inception, the dollar has lost 95% of its purchasing power. Grade: Failure.

  • Based on the chart below, interest rates have been anything but moderate since the inception of the Federal Reserve. They have consistently caused booms and busts by setting rates too low or too high. Grade: Failure.

  • The Federal Reserve was supposed to supervise the activities of banks. Instead, under Alan Greenspan, they stepped aside and let banks take preposterous risks while giving an unspoken assurance that the Fed would clean up any messes that they caused. This total dereliction of duty gross negligence has led the greatest financial collapse in history. Grade: Failure.

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