By Jason Napodano, CFA & John Tucker, PhD
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a neurological disorder caused by the long-term use of psychiatric drugs (neuroleptics) used in the treatment of schizophrenia. The symptoms of tardive dyskinesia include involuntary and abnormal movements of the jaw, lips, and tongue, including grimacing, sticking out the tongue, and sucking or fish-like movements of the mouth. In some cases, other parts of the body may be affected by rapid, jerking motions (chorea) or slow writhing movements (athetosis). These symptoms cause considerable distress to patients due to the resulting social stigma, and may contribute to poor outcomes such as psychiatric hospitalization by discouraging compliance with treatment. Other medical complications of tardive dyskinesia include difficulty eating, difficulty breathing,...
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