The accusations of data fabrication at GlaxoSmithKline's (GSK) China research site are quite real. That's what we get from the latest developments in the case, as reported by BioCentury, Pharmalot, and the news section at Nature Medicine. Jingwu Zang, lead author on the disputed paper and former head of the Shanghai research site, has been dismissed from the company. Other employees are on administrative leave while an investigation proceeds, and GSK has said it has begun the process of retracting the paper itself.
As for what's wrong with the paper in question, BioCentury Extra has this:
GSK said data in a paper published in January 2010 in Nature Medicine on the role of interleukin-7 (IL-7) in autoimmune disease characterized data as the results of experiments conducted with blood cells of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients "when, in fact, the data reported were either the results of experiments conducted at R&D China with normal (healthy donor) samples or cannot be documented at all, suggesting that they well may have been fabricated."
Pharmalot and others also report that GSK is asking all the authors of the paper to sign documents to agree that it be retracted, which is standard procedure at the Nature Publishing Group. If there's disagreement among them, the situation gets trickier, but we'll see what happens.
The biggest questions are unanswered, though, and we're not likely to hear about them except in rumors and leaks. How, for one thing, did this happen in the first place? On whose initiative were results faked? Who was supposed to check up on these results, and was there anything that could have been done to catch this problem earlier? Even more worrying - and you can bet that plenty of people inside GSK are thinking this, too - how many more things have been faked as well? You'd hope that this was an isolated incident, but if someone is willing to whip up a batch of lies like this, they might well be willing to do much more besides.
The involvement of the head of the entire operation (Jingwu Zang) is particularly troubling. Sometimes, in such cases, it turns out that the person at the top just had their name on the paper, but didn't really participate much or even know what was going on. But he's the only person so far in this mess who's been outright fired, which suggests that something larger has happened. We're not going to hear much about it, but you can bet there are some rather worried and upset people digging through this inside GlaxoSmithKline. There had better be.