Here is a look at how Xerox (NYSE:XRX) fares in ModernGraham's opinion, based on an updated and modernized version of Benjamin Graham's requirements of defensive and enterprising investors from The Intelligent Investor:
Defensive and Enterprising Investor Tests (What is the significance of these tests, and what is PEmg ratio?):
Defensive Investor – must pass at least 6 of the following 7 tests: Score = 4/7
- Adequate Size of Enterprise – market capitalization of at least $2 billion – PASS
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition – current ratio greater than 2 – FAIL
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 10 straight years – PASS
- Dividend Record – has paid a dividend for at least 10 straight years – FAIL
- Earnings Growth – earnings per share has increased by at least 1/3 over the last 10 years using 3-year averages at beginning and end of period – FAIL
- Moderate PEmg ratio – PEmg is less than 20 – PASS
- Moderate Price to Assets – PB ratio is less than 2.5 or PB x PEmg is less than 50 – PASS
Enterprising Investor – must pass at least 4 of the following 5 tests or be suitable for a defensive investor: Score = 3/5
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition, Part 1 – current ratio greater than 1.5 – FAIL
- Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition, Part 2 – Debt to Net Current Assets ratio less than 1.1 – FAIL
- Earnings Stability – positive earnings per share for at least 5 years – PASS
- Dividend Record – currently pays a dividend – PASS
- Earnings growth – EPSmg greater than 5 years ago – PASS
Valuation Summary (Explanation of the ModernGraham Valuation Model)
|MG Opinion||Fairly Valued|
|Value Based on 3% Growth||$12.12|
|Value Based on 0% Growth||$7.11|
|Market Implied Growth Rate||3.03%|
|Net Current Asset Value (NCAV)||-$7.23|
Balance Sheet – 9/30/2013
Earnings Per Share
Earnings Per Share – ModernGraham
Xerox Corporation has relatively stagnant earnings and does not pass the requirements for either the Defensive Investor or the Enterprising Investor. The company is not suitable for the Defensive Investor because of its poor current ratio, lack of a consistent dividend history over the ten-year historical period, and its failure to grow earnings adequately over the ten-year period. For the Enterprising Investor, the high level of debt relative to the company’s current assets is the determining factor. Either type of investor may be better suited looking through some of the Defensive and Enterprising companies ModernGraham has found to pass the requirements. As for a valuation, the company has not shown significant growth in its EPSmg (normalized earnings), however the market is only implying a growth rate of 3.03%, which is supported by the historical performance. As a result, the company appears to be fairly valued at the current time.
What do you think? Do you agree that Xerox Corporation is fairly valued? What would be your assessment? Is the company not suitable for Defensive Investors or Enterprising Investors? Leave a comment on our Facebook page or mention @ModernGraham on Twitter to discuss.
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Disclaimer: The author did not hold a position in Xerox Corporation (XRX) at the time of publication and had no intention of changing that position within the next 72 hours.