What is stock analysis? Well, there are some that think it has everything to do with the dividend. There are others that only look at charts. There are others that think analyst estimate misses (notice how this is equivalent to companies' earnings beats) are a way to gauge the trajectory of a stock. And yet there are others who are lost in medieval times. We, as investors, need to move beyond these individual frameworks and start taking a holistic view. Let's take a look at what we mean as it relates to our analysis with 3D Systems (DDD).
As part of our process, we perform a rigorous discounted cash-flow methodology that dives into the true intrinsic worth of companies. In 3D System's case, we think the firm is fairly valued at $73, about in line to where it is currently trading.
If a company is undervalued both on a DCF and on a relative valuation basis, it scores high on our scale. 3D Systems posts a VBI score of 6 on our scale, reflecting our 'fairly valued' DCF assessment of the firm, its unattractive relative valuation versus peers, and bullish technicals. We compare 3D Systems to peers F5 Networks (FFIV), Oracle (ORCL), and Microsoft (MSFT). In the spirit of transparency, we show how the performance of our VBI has stacked up per underlying score:
• 3D Systems earns a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT, the highest possible mark on our scale. The firm has been generating economic value for shareholders for the past few years, a track record we view very positively. Return on invested capital (excluding goodwill) has averaged 45.6% during the past three years.
• 3D Systems is a leading provider of 3D content-to print solutions including 3D printers, print materials and on-demand custom parts services for professionals and consumers alike.
• 3D Systems has a good combination of strong free cash flow generation and manageable financial leverage. We expect the firm's free cash flow margin to average about 10.4% in coming years. Total debt-to-EBITDA was 1.1 last year, while debt-to-book capitalization stood at 15.5%.
• What once seemed like an unattainable pipe dream is now a very powerful means of production. 3D Systems is seeing strong demand from manufacturing customers, and the firm's consumer products have recently hit Staples' shelves with a positive reception from consumers.
• The firm experienced a revenue CAGR of about 30.3% during the past 3 years. We expect its revenue growth to be better than its peer median during the next five years.
Economic Profit Analysis
The best measure of a firm's ability to create value for shareholders is expressed by comparing its return on invested capital - ROIC - with its weighted average cost of capital - WACC. The gap or difference between ROIC and WACC is called the firm's economic profit spread. 3D Systems's 3-year historical return on invested capital (without goodwill) is 45.6%, which is above the estimate of its cost of capital of 11.7%. As such, we assign the firm a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT. In the chart below, we show the probable path of ROIC in the years ahead based on the estimated volatility of key drivers behind the measure. The solid grey line reflects the most likely outcome, in our opinion, and represents the scenario that results in our fair value estimate.
Cash Flow Analysis
Firms that generate a free cash flow margin (free cash flow divided by total revenue) above 5% are usually considered cash cows. 3D Systems's free cash flow margin has averaged about 14.5% during the past 3 years. As such, we think the firm's cash flow generation is relatively STRONG. The free cash flow measure shown above is derived by taking cash flow from operations less capital expenditures and differs from enterprise free cash flow (FCFF), which we use in deriving our fair value estimate for the company. For more information on the differences between these two measures, please visit our website at Valuentum.com. At 3D Systems, cash flow from operations increased about 67% from levels registered two years ago, while capital expenditures expanded about 150% over the same time period.
The estimated fair value of $73 per share represents a price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio of about 102.1 times last year's earnings and an implied EV/EBITDA multiple of about 47.8 times last year's EBITDA. Our model reflects a compound annual revenue growth rate of 28.5% during the next five years, a pace that is lower than the firm's 3-year historical compound annual growth rate of 30.3%. Our model reflects a 5-year projected average operating margin of 17.3%, which is above 3D Systems's trailing 3-year average. Beyond year 5, we assume free cash flow will grow at an annual rate of 11.9% for the next 15 years and 3% in perpetuity. For 3D Systems, we use a 11.7% weighted average cost of capital to discount future free cash flows.
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Margin of Safety Analysis
Our discounted cash flow process values each firm on the basis of the present value of all future free cash flows. Although we estimate the firm's fair value at about $73 per share, every company has a range of probable fair values that's created by the uncertainty of key valuation drivers (like future revenue or earnings, for example). After all, if the future was known with certainty, we wouldn't see much volatility in the markets as stocks would trade precisely at their known fair values. Our ValueRisk™ rating sets the margin of safety or the fair value range we assign to each stock. In the graph below, we show this probable range of fair values for 3D Systems. We think the firm is attractive below $47 per share (the green line), but quite expensive above $99 per share (the red line). The prices that fall along the yellow line, which includes our fair value estimate, represent a reasonable valuation for the firm, in our opinion.
Future Path of Fair Value
We estimate 3D Systems's fair value at this point in time to be about $73 per share. As time passes, however, companies generate cash flow and pay out cash to shareholders in the form of dividends. The chart below compares the firm's current share price with the path of 3D Systems' expected equity value per share over the next three years, assuming our long-term projections prove accurate. The range between the resulting downside fair value and upside fair value in Year 3 represents our best estimate of the value of the firm's shares three years hence. This range of potential outcomes is also subject to change over time, should our views on the firm's future cash flow potential change. The expected fair value of $102 per share in Year 3 represents our existing fair value per share of $73 increased at an annual rate of the firm's cost of equity less its dividend yield. The upside and downside ranges are derived in the same way, but from the upper and lower bounds of our fair value estimate range.
Pro Forma Financial Statements
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Additional disclosure: MSFT is included in the portfolio of our Dividend Growth Newsletter.