- Personal investing can be a full-time job that many people don't have time for.
- Passively-managed index investing can be a great strategy to gain market exposure without having to monitor your portfolio on a daily basis.
- Web-based investment advisors like Betterment and Wealthfront make passive index investing very easy.
After graduating from Dartmouth College, I moved to New York City to begin my first job as an investment banker. The money I earned went almost entirely towards rent, food and alcohol, but I still managed to contribute 5% of each paycheck into a 401(k).
Now that I had money to invest, I figured it would be prudent to research different investment strategies, asset classes, and how to construct a balanced portfolio. But after some investigation, I quickly realized how complex things could get. The number of investment options and strategies out there was overwhelming. I wanted to learn about them, but with the long hours I worked as a banking analyst, I barely had time for anything else.
Over the next few months, I developed a deep interest in personal finance. I wanted to find a smart way to invest my money without effectively becoming a day trader. It needed to be simpler than that.
Some more research led me to a book called Unconventional Success, written by David Swensen. Swensen is an icon among institutional money managers and has run the Yale endowment since 1985. In his book, he outlines a passively managed index investing approach for individuals that focuses on a "well-diversified, equity-oriented portfolio." He recommends the following asset allocation:
Asset Class, ETF Ticker, %
Domestic Stocks, VTI, 30%
Foreign Developed Stocks, VEA, 15%
Emerging Market Stocks, VWO, 5%
Real Estate, VNQ, 20%
U.S. Treasury Bonds, IEF, 15%
U.S. Inflation-Protected Securities, TIP, 15%
In order to implement this strategy, you can purchase low-cost exchange traded funds (ETFs) that track each of the six asset classes. The ticker symbols for each are listed above.
Recently, several web-based investment advisors have appeared, including Betterment and Wealthfront. These tools make it easy to invest in a well-diversified portfolio without having to buy the different ETF funds individually. When I first discovered Betterment, I was curious which ETFs they included in their portfolio. Would they mirror Swensen's recommendation?
It turns out the asset allocation is strikingly similar. A few of their ETFs are even the same as those used to construct Swensen's portfolio. Betterment has recently expanded their ETF selection, but their general approach hasn't changed. Like Swensen, they follow a diversified, equity-weighted, low-cost approach.
I've been using Betterment for eight months now, and so far I really like it. If you have money sitting idle in a checking or savings account that you don't need to access in the near term, I would suggest opening an account with Betterment. Alternatively, if you want to learn a little more about ETFs, you can open a brokerage account (I use Schwab) and purchase each of the ETFs individually. It's a little more work to set up, but it can be fun to go through the process of buying them yourself.
All that said, this isn't the best investment strategy for everyone out there. There are probably many other options that could work just as well or better depending on the type of person you are. But for someone like me who wants to invest in the market, but doesn't want to check their account on a daily or weekly basis, passively-managed indexed investing is a great option.