The two charts below offer clues for evaluating the risk of profit margin squeeze in the current economy. One is the ratio of crude to finished goods in the Producer Price Index (data through March). The other is an indicator constructed from two data series in the Philadelphia Fed's Business Outlook Survey through today's release. It is the spread between the Philly Fed's prices paid (input costs) and received (prices charged) data.
So let's take a broader view of these two indicators by viewing them within the context of inflation as measured by the Consumer Price Index. As the first chart clearly shows, the all-time high in the PPI crude:finished-goods ratio was in July 2008, the same month that crude oil and gasoline prices in the U.S. hit their all-time highs. The previous ratio high was in the summer of 1973, a few months before the outbreak of the October Arab-Israeli War and the oil embargo. Inflation had already been rising in a series of waves since the mid-1960s. But Middle-East events of 1973 were the primary trigger for the nearly 10 years of stagflation that followed. The latest data point shows a slight decline of 1.2% from the interim ratio high set last month. A decline is certainly the right direction, but the March 2011 ratio still is at the 98th percentile of the 768 data points in this series.
The Philly Fed Prices Paid Minus Prices Received Index is an extremely volatile series, which I've illustrated by using dots for the monthly data points. To highlight the underlying pattern, I've included a 12-month moving average (MA). The date callouts show that the comparable levels in the past were associated with inflationary peaks. The April ratio is down from last month but remains high: at the 85th percentile of the 516 monthly data points in this series. The 12-month MA has declined 2% from the all-time high set last month.
By official government metrics, the CPI and PCE, inflation is not a near-term threat. In fact, the Federal Reserve has been working hard to raise the level of core inflation.
Of course, there are many differences between the inflationary decade of the 1970s and the present, not least of which is the rate of unemployment. In August 1973 (first chart above), unemployment was at 4.8%. The latest Gallup Poll unemployment survey puts the mid-April rate at 9.6%, nearly a percentage point higher than the 8.8% March number from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Also, U.S. demographics are quite different. The oldest Boomers were turning 27 in 1973. They were at the beginning of their careers with decades of wage increases in their expectations. This year they are turning 65, and many are already on Social Security as their main source of income.
At present, in light of the unemployment rate and the ongoing demographic shift, the rise in commodity prices probably poses more risk of continuing margin squeeze than run-away inflation. Some degree of cost-push inflation may be a near-term risk, but the demand-pull inflation we saw in the 1970s is difficult to evision in the U.S. economy of this decade.
The next Business Outlook Survey will be released on May 19, 2011.