The market took great comfort in the 4Q GDP number (+8.9%) published an efficient 17 days after the end of the quarter (perhaps the BEA could pick up a few pointers). With a small improvement over the consensus of 8.7%, concerns of a weak Chinese economy have been banished from the 24 hour news cycle for the time being.
However, investors should probably look elsewhere for comfort.
Although China’s multi-decade economic rise is beyond dispute, China’s GDP pronouncements are more about Beijing’s economic policy thinking than a hard accounting of the sum total of goods and services produced in the PRC over a particular quarter. In my association with the Chinese markets, they have been playing this game since at least 1992 when the B share markets opened to foreign investors in Shanghai and Shenzhen.
For the next few announcements, a number too close to 8% would be signal leadership concern for a stalling economy and that a massive state intervention (a credit loosening) is imminent. A number which leans closer to double digits would signal concerns of domestic economic overheating and would foreshadow a credit tightening cycle to tame inflationary pressures. The thresholds change slightly from year to year but the game does not. China is signaling a “wait and see” stance for the time being. For Chinese provinces and municipalities which rely heavily on a bubbly property market to keep their finances in order, that message is not the one they are waiting for. Domestic demand in China is still driven primarily by investment rather than private consumption. And especially since the Global Financial Crisis, much of that investment has been skewed towards the property sector.
In the meantime, one of the “canaries in the mine” has definitely slipped off its perch. The Baltic Dry Index has halved since mid-December. Despite the name, the BDI covers shipping routes across the globe and the primary cargoes are coal, iron ore and grain. The index is subject to impressive swings because the supply of ships is fairly inelastic while demand for cargo is highly elastic That said, a 50% drop attributed to weaker Chinese demand for iron ore shipments, is not something one should ignore.
If China is in fact cooling its demand for iron ore in response to a general domestic slowdown, one should look at the short side of the Australian ETF, EWA. The Australian market is heavily weighted towards resources and financials and any trouble with Australia's largest export market should show up in the market soon.