As part of our process, we perform a rigorous discounted cash-flow methodology that dives into the true intrinsic worth of companies.
In Kroger's (KR) case, we think the firm is fairly valued at $28 per share, near where it is currently trading. However, we think investors may be interested in the relative value that Kroger holds versus peers. Our reports on Kroger and hundreds of other companies can be found here.
For some background, we think a comprehensive analysis of a firm's discounted cash-flow valuation, relative valuation versus industry peers, as well as an assessment of technical and momentum indicators is the best way to identify the most attractive stocks at the best time to buy. This process culminates in what we call our Valuentum Buying Index.
If a company is undervalued both on a DCF and on a relative valuation basis and is showing improvement in technical and momentum indicators, it scores high on our scale. Kroger posts a VBI score of 7 on our scale, reflecting our 'fairly valued' DCF assessment, the firm's attractive relative valuation versus peers, and its bullish techinicals. Kroger leads this peer group with the highest VBI score. All other companies in this peer group: Costco (COST), Target (TGT), Wal-Mart (WMT), and Walgreen (WAG) score a VBI of 6 or lower.
Kroger earns a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT, the highest possible mark on our scale. The firm has been generating economic value for shareholders for the past few years, a track record we view very positively. Return on invested capital (excluding goodwill) has averaged 16% during the past three years.
The firm is trading at attractive valuation multiples relative to peers, but our DCF process indicates a less compelling opportunity. We'd wait for a clearer signal on valuation before jumping into the firm's shares before considering it in the market-beating portfolio of our Best Ideas Newsletter. In the spirit of full transparency and to answer the many questions we've received from our followers, we disclose the performance of our Best Ideas Newsletter below:
Source: Valuentum Securities, Inc.
Kroger 's cash flow generation and financial leverage are at decent levels, in our opinion. The firm's free cash flow margin and debt-to-EBITDA metrics are about what we'd expect from an average firm in our coverage universe.
The firm's share price performance has been roughly in line with that of the market during the past quarter. We'd expect the firm's stock price to converge to our fair value estimate within the next three years, if our forecasts prove accurate.
The firm experienced a revenue CAGR of about 5.4% during the past 3 years. We expect its revenue growth to be better than its peer median during the next five years.
Economic Profit Analysis
The best measure of a firm's ability to create value for shareholders is expressed by comparing its return on invested capital (ROIC) with its weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The gap or difference between ROIC and WACC is called the firm's economic profit spread. Kroger 's 3-year historical return on invested capital (without goodwill) is 16%, which is above the estimate of its cost of capital of 9.4%. As such, we assign the firm a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT. In the chart below, we show the probable path of ROIC in the years ahead based on the estimated volatility of key drivers behind the measure. The solid grey line reflects the most likely outcome, in our opinion, and represents the scenario that results in our fair value estimate.
Cash Flow Analysis
Firms that generate a free cash flow margin (free cash flow divided by total revenue) above 5% are usually considered cash cows. Kroger 's free cash flow margin has averaged about 1.2% during the past 3 years. As such, we think the firm's cash flow generation is relatively MEDIUM. The free cash flow measure shown above is derived by taking cash flow from operations less capital expenditures and differs from enterprise free cash flow (FCFF), which we use in deriving our fair value estimate for the company. For more information on the differences between these two measures, please visit our website. At Kroger, cash flow from operations increased about 16% from levels registered two years ago, while capital expenditures fell about 11% over the same time period.
Our discounted cash flow model indicates that Kroger 's shares are worth between $19 and $37 each. The margin of safety around our fair value estimate is driven by the firm's HIGH ValueRisk™ rating, which is derived from the historical volatility of key valuation drivers. The estimated fair value of $28 per share represents a price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio of about 16 times last year's earnings and an implied EV/EBITDA multiple of about 6.5 times last year's EBITDA. Our model reflects a compound annual revenue growth rate of 5.6% during the next five years, a pace that is higher than the firm's 3-year historical compound annual growth rate of 5.4%. Our model reflects a 5-year projected average operating margin of 2.7%, which is below Kroger's trailing 3-year average. Beyond year 5, we assume free cash flow will grow at an annual rate of 3.8% for the next 15 years and 3% in perpetuity. For Kroger, we use a 9.4% weighted average cost of capital to discount future free cash flows.
Margin of Safety Analysis
Our discounted cash flow process values each firm on the basis of the present value of all future free cash flows. Although we estimate the firm's fair value at about $28 per share, every company has a range of probable fair values that's created by the uncertainty of key valuation drivers (like future revenue or earnings, for example). After all, if the future was known with certainty, we wouldn't see much volatility in the markets as stocks would trade precisely at their known fair values. Our ValueRisk™ rating sets the margin of safety or the fair value range we assign to each stock. In the graph below, we show this probable range of fair values for Kroger. We think the firm is attractive below $19 per share (the green line), but quite expensive above $37 per share (the red line). The prices that fall along the yellow line, which includes our fair value estimate, represent a reasonable valuation for the firm, in our opinion.
Future Path of Fair Value
We estimate Kroger 's fair value at this point in time to be about $28 per share. As time passes, however, companies generate cash flow and pay out cash to shareholders in the form of dividends. The chart below compares the firm's current share price with the path of
Kroger 's expected equity value per share over the next three years,
assuming our long-term projections prove accurate. The range between the resulting downside fair value and upside fair value in Year 3 represents our best estimate of the value of the firm's shares three years hence. This range of potential outcomes is also subject to change over time, should our views on the firm's future cash flow potential change. The expected fair value of $37 per share in Year 3 represents our existing fair value per share of $28 increased at an annual rate of the firm's cost of equity less its dividend yield. The upside and downside ranges are derived in the same way, but from
the upper and lower bounds of our fair value estimate range.
Pro Forma Financial Statements
Our Report On Kroger
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