A destructive storm like a hurricane can do significant short-term damage and leave long-term issues to be resolved. But when it is done and over, life generally returns to "normal." However, what we are facing economically, financially, societally is not a storm but instead more akin to an ice age. The changes taking place and culminating now have been millennium in the making and will be many decades more before some new "norm" is established.
Why is this important? Context. I'm going to show that the combined OECD+China+Russia+Brazil (which make up 43% of the global population but consume 70% of all the oil) are in the midst of a demographic transition which will change everything... not like a temporary storm or hurricane but like a climate shifting ice age that will require massive change and realignment to sustain ourselves. The long period of population growth, and specifically of the growth of the core 15-64yr/old population among these nations, which has driven economic activity for millennia and certainly since WWII has come to an end. But not only come to an end but is about to start shrinking significantly. The implications of a pie no longer growing but moving to outright shrinkage will change everything.
To explain why this time truly is different (and why new, entirely different thinking & solutions are necessary), I'm going to use oil consumption as a proxy for general global consumption. Oil consumption is broken down among four groups:
- The wealthy 34 OECD members (membership HERE)
- China, Russia, Brazil
- India, Africa
- Rest of World
Outlined below are the groupings' 2013 population (% of global total) vs. changing oil consumption. The OECD nations with 17% of global population consume 50% of the oil. China, Russia, Brazil combined are 24% of global population and consume 19% of the oil. India and Africa are 33% of the population and consume 8% of the oil. A growing India and Africa simply haven't the income, savings, access to or utilization of credit to allow their growth to offset the loss of the growth among the OECD, China, Russia, & Brazil.
The Demographic Ice Age
The chart below shows the annual change in the 15-64yr/old adult combined population of all 34 OECD nations, plus China, Brazil, and Russia (blue changing to red columns). These nations represent 3+ billion people (43% of earth's population), 70% of global oil consumption (as of 2014), and likely 75% of all disposable income. This is simple arithmetic of adding how many are moving into the core on one side minus how many are exiting on the other. The baby boom was a global phenomenon as is the global baby bust. WWII's destruction and its aftermath of cheap energy collectively brought all these nations onto a shared cycle unlike ever before.
All nations saw massive #'s perish in the war, all saw significant dips in birthrates during the war, all saw huge population bursts post war, and now all have seen massive, ongoing baby busts. Combine that with cheap energy and global trade since WWII on a scale never before seen. Thus, the federal funds rate peaking in '81 was no national or coincidental occurrence. 1981 was also the peak of annual core population growth among these critical nations. The annual peak in new adult consumer growth was also the peak in the growth of demand. The growth in global debt (encouraged by the lowering of central bank interest rates) came absent like growth in global GDP.
The chart below shows adult population growth as a % of the entire adult 15-64yr/old population. It is even more pronounced in the relationship of federal funds rate to peaking and then slowing growth.
Total change by period to the 15-64yr/old population, below. Massive population and demand growth has turned to shrinkage.
The average annual change during each period to the 15-64yr/old core, below.
But what about India? India represents 1.3 billion or almost 20% of earth's population. While the adult population of the OECD, China, Brazil, Russia have ceased growing... India has not and is the primary remaining population growth engine alongside Africa. Indian growth by period, below.
Indian average annual population growth, by period, below. Noteworthy that India has already seen peak core population growth and continues decelerating from here on.
So, India plus Africa and the poorest parts of the world are still growing... but alas, they simply haven't (and won't have) the income, the savings, the access to credit to ever consume at Western or even BRICS levels of consumption. Nor will they have the healthy, growing global markets to utilize their cheap labor to export their way to prosperity.
The chart below highlights the population growth, by nation over three separate periods. The current period has only a single column remaining (representing growth)... India.
Below, the change in core population growth, in % terms. The deceleration should be getting a bit obvious by now.
If we widen out to the total annual 0-64yr/old global population growth (yellow columns below), we see annual growth peaked in 1988. The annual growth breakdown between OECD+China+Brazil+Russia (green line) and the Rest of the World (black line) is detailed. The slowdown is undeniable and makes it plain why the central bank remedies are simply infantile and incapable of resolving a demographic shift with monetary policy.