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Determining a company's financial health is a very important step in making a decision whether or not to invest or to stay invested. There are many different ways to compute a company's financial health, but in this test, I take into consideration Joy Global Inc.'s (NYSE:JOY) profitability, debt and capital, and operating efficiency. Based on these three criteria we get to see sales, returns, margins, liabilities, assets, returns and turnovers.

Profitability

Profitability is class of financial metrics that are used to assess a business's ability to generate earnings as compared to its expenses and other relevant costs incurred during a specific period of time.

In this section we will look at four tests of profitability. They are: Net Income, Operating Cash Flow, Return on Assets and Quality of Earnings. From these four metrics, we will establish if the company is making money and gauge the quality of the reported profits.

1. Net Income 2011 = $609.66 million

To pass, the company needs to have a positive net income. JOY Global passes.

2. Operating Cash Flow 2011 = $920.14 billion

Operating Cash Flow is the cash generated from the operations of a company, generally defined as revenues less all operating expenses, but calculated through a series of adjustments to net income.

To pass the company needs to have a positive operating cash flow. JOY Global passes

3. ROA - Return On Assets

ROA is an indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. ROA gives an idea as to how efficient management is at using its assets to generate earnings. Calculated by dividing a company's net income by its total assets, ROA is displayed as a percentage. Sometimes this is referred to as "return on investment".

ROA in 2010 = 8.5%

ROA in 2011 = 9.8%

Net income growth 2010 = $461.50 million to 2011 = $609.66 million, a gain of 24.3%

Assets growth in 2010 = $5.426 billion to 2012 = $6.166 billion, a difference of 12%

In 2010 to 2011 the company's ROA grew. Joy passes

4. Quality of Earnings

Quality of Earnings is the amount of earnings attributable to higher sales or lower costs rather than artificial profits created by accounting anomalies such as inflation of inventory.

Operating Cash Flow = $920.14 billion

Net Income = $609.66 million

To pass the operating cash flow must exceed the net income. JOY Global passes.

Debt and Capital

The Debt and Capital section establishes if the company is sinking into debt or digging its way out. It will also determine if the company is growing organically or raising cash by selling off stock.

5. Total Liabilities to Total Assets or TL/A ratio.

TL/A ratio is a metric used to measure a company's financial risk by determining how much of the company's assets have been financed by debt.

Total Assets - 2010 = $5.426 billion

Total Assets - 2011 = $6.166 billion

Equals an increase of 12%

Total Liabilities 2010 = $3.474 billion

Total liabilities 2011 = $4.055 billion

Increase of 14.3%

Joy Global Inc.'s increase in Total Assets did not exceed the percentage of Total Liabilities. Total Assets increased by 12%, while the total liabilities increased by 14.3%. Joy Global does not pass.

6. Working Capital

Working Capital is a general and quick measure of liquidity of a firm. It represents the margin of safety or cushion available to the creditors. It is an index of the firm's financial stability. It is also an index of technical solvency and an index of the strength of working capital.

Current Assets / Current liabilities

Current Ratio 2010 = 2.06

Current Ratio 2011 = 1.80

Joy Global's current ratio dropped from 2.06 to 1.80, but 1.80 is still well above the industry standard of 1.1.

JOY Global does not pass

7. Shares Outstanding

2010 Shares Outstanding = 103.53 million

Current Shares Outstanding = 105.11 million

To pass, the company's shares must increase less than by 2%. Joy Global passes.

Operating Efficiency

Operating Efficiency is a market condition that exists when participants can execute transactions and receive services at a price that equates fairly to the actual costs required to provide them. An operationally-efficient market allows investors to make transactions that move the market further toward the overall goal of prudent capital allocation without being chiseled down by excessive frictional costs, which would reduce the risk/reward profile of the transaction.

8. Gross Margin: Gross Income / Sales

The gross profit margin is a measurement of a company's manufacturing and distribution efficiency during the production process. The gross profit tells an investor the percentage of revenue / sales left after subtracting the cost of goods sold. A company that boasts a higher gross profit margin than its competitors and industry is more efficient. Investors tend to pay more for businesses that have higher efficiency ratings than their competitors, as these businesses should be able to make a decent profit as long as overhead costs are controlled (overhead refers to rent, utilities, etc.)

Gross Margin 2010 = $1.173 / $3.524 = 33.28%

Gross Margin 2011 = $1.506 / $4.403 = 34.13%

The gross profit margins increased slightly in 2011 over 2010. The gross margin went from 33.28% to 34.13%. Joy Global passes.

9. Asset Turnover:

The formula for the asset turnover ratio evaluates how well a company is utilizing its assets to produce revenue.

The numerator of the asset turnover ratio formula shows revenues found on a company's income statement and the denominator shows total assets which is found on a company's balance sheet. Total assets should be averaged over the period of time that is being evaluated.

Sales growth - 2010 sales = $3.524 billion

Sales growth - 2011 sales = $4.403 billion

19.96% sales growth

Asset growth - Assets in 2011 = $5.426 billion

Asset growth - Assets in 2012 = $6.166 billion

Asset growth of 12%

As the Sales growth is exceeding the Asset growth, this implies that the company is making money on its assets. Joy Global passes.

Based on the nine tests that Joy Global Inc received on profitability, debt and capital, and operating efficiency, Joy Global received 7 passes out of 9-- this indicates strong financial health. The company is making money on its investments. The only blemishes were the working capital and the TL/A ratio. The company's current ratio of 1.80 is well above the industry standard of 1.1 and the TL/A ratio does show that Joy Global is making purchases financing debt. Based on the 9 tests, overall the company is showing strong results with 7 passes out of 9.

For more information on Joy Global Inc. read my previous article: Joy Global: Future In Emerging Market Growth.

Disclosure: I have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours.

Source: Joy Global's Financial Health: Inside The Numbers