As part of our process, we perform a rigorous discounted cash-flow methodology that dives into the true intrinsic worth of companies. In Cisco's (CSCO) case, we think the firm is undervalued. But let's talk about why we're not putting our capital to work in the firm.
For some background, we think a comprehensive analysis of a firm's discounted cash-flow valuation, relative valuation versus industry peers, as well as an assessment of technical and momentum indicators is the best way to identify the most attractive stocks at the best time to buy. This process culminates in what we call our Valuentum Buying Index (click here for video on methodology with President Brian Nelson), which ranks stocks on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the best. In the spirit of transparency, we show how the performance of our VBI has stacked up per underlying score:
So, if a company is undervalued both on a DCF and on a relative valuation basis and is showing improvement in technical and momentum indicators, it scores high on our scale. Cisco posts a VBI score of 6 on our scale, reflecting our 'undervalued' DCF assessment, attractive relative valuation versus peers, and very bearish techinicals. As you can see by the image above, we're expecting a nice bounce in Cisco's shares, but we'd prefer its VBI to be a 9 or 10. In order for Cisco to achieve a 9 or 10, we'd demand an improvement in its technical and momentum indicators. The performance of stocks that score a 9 or 10 on our VBI has been fantastic (click here for the list).
Our Report on Cisco
Our report on Cisco and hundreds of other companies can be found here.
Cisco's business quality (an evaluation of our ValueCreation™ and ValueRisk™ ratings) ranks among the best of the firms in our coverage universe. The firm has been generating economic value for share-holders with relatively stable operating results for the past few years, a combination we view very positively.
Cisco's valuation is compelling at this time. The firm is trading at a nice discount to our estimate of its fair value, even after considering an appropriate margin of safety. The firm's forward earnings multiple and PEG ratio also look attractive versus peers.
Cisco has a good combination of strong free cash flow generation and manageable financial leverage. We expect the firm's free cash flow margin to average about 22.8% in coming years. Total debt-to-EBITDA
was 1.5 last year, while debt-to-book capitalization stood at 26.3%.
The firm's shares have underperformed the market benchmark during the past quarter. Although Cisco's valuation appears attractive, the company is currently exhibiting characteristics of a potential value trap (on the basis of its technicals), and we'd still be cautious at these levels. We think the technical/momentum component of our VBI helps investors avoid massive losses by entering a position too early.
Needless to say, if its technicals and momentum indicators change, we'd take a closer look at adding it to the market-beating portfolio of our Best Ideas Newsletter. In the spirit of transparency, we show the performance of our Best Ideas Newsletter below:
Economic Profit Analysis
The best measure of a firm's ability to create value for shareholders is expressed by comparing its return on invested capital (ROIC) with its weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The gap or difference between ROIC and WACC is called the firm's economic profit spread. Cisco's 3-year historical return on invested capital (without goodwill) is 58.3%, which is above the estimate of its cost of capital of 10.9%. As such, we assign the firm a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT. In the chart below, we show the probable path of ROIC in the years ahead based on the estimated volatility of key drivers behind the measure. The solid grey line reflects the most likely outcome, in our opinion, and represents the scenario that results in our fair value estimate.
Cash Flow Analysis
Firms that generate a free cash flow margin (free cash flow divided by total revenue) above 5% are usually considered cash cows. Cisco's free cash flow margin has averaged about 22.8% during the past 3 years. As such, we think the firm's cash flow generation is relatively STRONG. The free cash flow measure shown above is derived by taking cash flow from operations less capital expenditures and differs from enterprise free cash flow (FCFF), which we use in deriving our fair value estimate for the company. At Cisco, cash flow from operations increased about 1% from levels registered two years ago, while capital expenditures expanded about 17% over the same time period.
Our discounted cash flow model indicates that Cisco's shares are worth between $21.00 - $31.00 each. The margin of safety around our fair value estimate is driven by the firm's LOW ValueRisk™ rating, which is derived from the historical volatility of key valuation drivers. The estimated fair value of $26 per share represents a price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio of about 22.3 times last year's earnings and an implied EV/EBITDA multiple of about 10.5 times last year's EBITDA. Our model reflects a compound annual revenue growth rate of 4.2% during the next five years, a pace that is higher than the firm's 3-year historical compound annual growth rate of 3%. Our model reflects a 5-year projected average operating margin of 26.8%, which is above Cisco's trailing 3-year average. Beyond year 5, we assume free cash flow will grow at an annual rate of 1% for the next 15 years and 3% in perpetuity. For Cisco, we use a 10.9% weighted average cost of capital to discount future free cash flows.
Margin of Safety Analysis
Our discounted cash flow process values each firm on the basis of the present value of all future free cash flows. Although we estimate the firm's fair value at about $26 per share, every company has a range of probable fair values that's created by the uncertainty of key valuation drivers (like future revenue or earnings, for example). After all, if the future was known with certainty, we wouldn't see much volatility in the markets as stocks would trade precisely at their known fair values. Our ValueRisk™ rating sets the margin of safety or the fair value range we assign to each stock. In the graph below, we show this probable range of fair values for Cisco. We think the firm is attractive below $21 per share (the green line), but quite expensive above $31 per share (the red line). The prices that fall along the yellow line, which includes our fair value estimate, represent a reasonable valuation for the firm, in our opinion.
Future Path of Fair Value
We estimate Cisco's fair value at this point in time to be about $26 per share. As time passes, however, companies generate cash flow and pay out cash to shareholders in the form of dividends. The chart below compares the firm's current share price with the path of Cisco's expected equity value per share over the next three years, assuming our long-term projections prove accurate. The range between the resulting downside fair value and upside fair value in Year 3 represents our best estimate of the value of the firm's shares three years hence. This range of potential outcomes is also subject to change over time, should our views on the firm's future cash flow potential change. The expected fair value of $35 per share in Year 3 represents our existing fair value per share of $26 increased at an annual rate of the firm's cost of equity less its dividend yield. The upside and downside ranges are derived in the same way, but from the upper and lower bounds of our fair value estimate range.
Pro Forma Financial Statements