As part of our process, we perform a rigorous discounted cash-flow methodology that dives into the true intrinsic worth of companies. In Yum! Brands' (YUM) case, we think it is fairly valued at $56 per share. However, the recent pullback has put its shares within our fair value range, and any additional weakness would be most welcome for investors seeking to initiate a position in this franchise.
For some background, we think a comprehensive analysis of a firm's discounted cash-flow valuation, relative valuation versus industry peers, as well as an assessment of technical and momentum indicators is the best way to identify the most attractive stocks at the best time to buy. This process culminates in what we call our Valuentum Buying Index (click here for an in-depth presentation on our methodology), which ranks stocks on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the best.
If a company is undervalued both on a DCF and on a relative valuation basis and is showing improvement in technical and momentum indicators, it scores high on our scale. Yum! Brands posts a VBI score of 4 on our scale. We prefer firms that have scores of 9 and 10, as it has been shown that a cohort of stocks with both attractive value and momentum qualities have great potential for outperformance. Our white paper outlining this conclusion can be downloaded by clicking on the picture below:
Our Report on Yum! Brands
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Yum! Brands earns a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT, the highest possible mark on our scale. The firm has been generating economic value for shareholders for the past few years, a track record we
view very positively. We expect the firm's return on invested capital (excluding goodwill) to expand to 49.5% from 44.3% during the next two years.
The firm is trading at attractive valuation multiples relative to peers, but our DCF process has just started to become more constructive. We'd wait for a clearer signal on valuation before jumping into the firm's shares.
Yum! Brands has an excellent combination of strong free cash flow generation and low financial leverage. We expect the firm's free cash flow margin to average about 11.6% in coming years. Total debt-to-EBITDA was 1.3 last year, while debt-to-book capitalization stood at 64.5%.
Although we think there may be a better time to dabble in the firm's shares based on our DCF process, the firm's stock has outperformed the market benchmark during the past quarter, indicating increased investor interest in the company.
Economic Profit Analysis
The best measure of a firm's ability to create value for shareholders is expressed by comparing its return on invested capital (ROIC) with its weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The gap or difference between ROIC and WACC is called the firm's economic profit spread. Yum! Brands' 3-year historical return on invested capital (without goodwill) is 37.9%, which is above the estimate of its cost of capital of 10.3%. As such, we assign the firm a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT. In the chart below, we show the probable path of ROIC in the years ahead based on the estimated volatility of key drivers behind the measure. The solid grey line reflects the most likely outcome, in our opinion, and represents the scenario that results in our fair value estimate.
Cash Flow Analysis
Firms that generate a free cash flow margin (free cash flow divided by total revenue) above 5% are usually considered cash cows. Yum! Brands' free cash flow margin has averaged about 8.6% during the past 3 years. As such, we think the firm's cash flow generation is relatively STRONG. The free cash flow measure shown above is derived by taking cash flow from operations less capital expenditures and differs from enterprise free cash flow (FCFF), which we use in deriving our fair value estimate for the company. At Yum! Brands, cash flow from operations increased about 53% from levels registered two years ago, while capital expenditures expanded about 18% over the same time period.
Our discounted cash flow model indicates that Yum! Brands' shares are worth between $42.00 - $70.00 each. The margin of safety around our fair value estimate is driven by the firm's MEDIUM ValueRisk™ rating, which is derived from the historical volatility of key valuation drivers. The estimated fair value of $56 per share represents a price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio of about 20.4 times last year's earnings and an implied EV/EBITDA multiple of about 11.1 times last year's EBITDA.
Our model reflects a compound annual revenue growth rate of 8% during the next five years, a pace that is higher than the firm's 3-year historical compound annual growth rate of 3.8%. Our model reflects a 5-year projected average operating margin of 15.8%, which is above Yum! Brands' trailing 3-year average. Beyond year 5, we assume free cash flow will grow at an annual rate of 3.5% for the next 15 years and 3% in perpetuity. For Yum! Brands, we use a 10.3% weighted average cost of capital to discount future free cash flows.
Margin of Safety Analysis
Our discounted cash flow process values each firm on the basis of the present value of all future free cash flows. Although we estimate the firm's fair value at about $56 per share, every company has a range of probable fair values that's created by the uncertainty of key valuation drivers (like future revenue or earnings, for example). After all, if the future was known with certainty, we wouldn't see much volatility in the markets as stocks would trade precisely at their known fair values.
Our ValueRisk™ rating sets the margin of safety or the fair value range we assign to each stock. In the graph below, we show this probable range of fair values for Yum! Brands. We think the firm is attractive below $42 per share (the green line), but quite expensive above $70 per share (the red line). The prices that fall along the yellow line, which includes our fair value estimate, represent a reasonable valuation for the firm, in our opinion.
Future Path of Fair Value
We estimate Yum! Brands' fair value at this point in time to be about $56 per share. As time passes, however, companies generate cash flow and pay out cash to shareholders in the form of dividends. The chart to the right compares the firm's current share price with the path of Yum! Brands' expected equity value per share over the next three years, assuming our long-term projections prove accurate. The range between the resulting downside fair value and upside fair value in Year 3 represents our best estimate of the value of the firm's shares three years hence.
This range of potential outcomes is also subject to change over time, should our views on the firm's future cash flow potential change. The expected fair value of $73 per share in Year 3 represents our existing fair value per share of $56 increased at an annual rate of the firm's cost of equity less its dividend yield. The upside and downside ranges are derived in the same way, but from the upper and lower bounds of our fair value estimate range.
Pro Forma Financial Statements