As part of our process, we perform a rigorous discounted cash-flow methodology that dives into the true intrinsic worth of companies. In Coca Cola's (KO) case, we think the firm is fairly valued at $70, about in line to where it is currently trading.
For some background, we think a comprehensive analysis of a firm's discounted cash-flow valuation, relative valuation versus industry peers, as well as an assessment of technical and momentum indicators is the best way to identify the most attractive stocks at the best time to buy. This process culminates in what we call our Valuentum Buying Index (click here for an in-depth presentation about our methodology), which ranks stocks on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the best. Essentially, we're looking for firms that overlap investment methodologies, thereby revealing the greatest interest by investors (we like firms that fall in the center of the diagram below):
If a company is undervalued both on a DCF and on a relative valuation basis and is showing improvement in technical and momentum indicators, it scores high on our scale. Coca Cola posts a VBI score of 6 on our scale, reflecting our 'fairly valued' DCF assessment of the firm, its neutral relative valuation versus peers, and bullish techinicals. We compare Coca Cola to peers Pepsi Co (PEP), Monster Beverage (MNST), National Beverage (FIZZ) and Dr. Pepper Snapple (DPS). In the spirit of transparency, we show how the performance of our VBI has stacked up per underlying score:
Our Report on Coca Cola
• Coca-Cola 's business quality (an evaluation of our ValueCreation™ and ValueRisk™ ratings) ranks among the best of the firms in our coverage universe. The firm has been generating economic value for
shareholders with relatively stable operating results for the past few years, a combination we view very positively.
• The company looks fairly valued at this time. We expect the firm to trade within our fair value estimate range for the time being. If the firm's share price fell below $56, we'd take a closer look.
• Coca-Cola has a good combination of strong free cash flow generation and manageable financial leverage. We expect the firm's free cash flow margin to average about 18.7% in coming years. Total debt-to- EBITDA was 2.4 last year, while debt-to-book capitalization stood at 47.5%.
• Although we think there may be a better time to dabble in the firm's shares based on our DCF process, the firm's stock has outperformed the market benchmark during the past quarter, indicating increased investor interest in the company.
• The firm sports a very nice dividend yield of 2.6%. We expect the firm to pay out about 50% of next year's earnings to shareholders as dividends.
Economic Profit Analysis
The best measure of a firm's ability to create value for shareholders is expressed by comparing its return on invested capital (ROIC) with its weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The gap or difference between ROIC and WACC is called the firm's economic profit spread. Coca-Cola 's 3-year historical return on invested capital (without goodwill) is 22.4%, which is above the estimate of its cost of capital of 8.5%. As such, we assign the firm a ValueCreation™ rating of EXCELLENT. In the chart to the below, we show the probable path of ROIC in the years ahead based on the estimated volatility of key drivers behind the measure. The solid grey line reflects the most likely
outcome, in our opinion, and represents the scenario that results in our fair value estimate.
Cash Flow Analysis
Firms that generate a free cash flow margin (free cash flow divided by total revenue) above 5% are usually considered cash cows. Coca-Cola's free cash flow margin has averaged about 18.3% during the past 3 years. As such, we think the firm's cash flow generation is relatively STRONG. The free cash flow measure shown above is derived by taking cash flow from operations less capital expenditures and differs from enterprise free cash flow (FCFF), which we use in deriving our fair value estimate for the company. For more information on the differences between these two measures, please visit our website at www.valuentum.com. At Coca-Cola, cash flow from operations
increased about 16% from levels registered two years ago, while capital expenditures expanded about 47% over the same time period.
Our discounted cash flow model indicates that Coca-Cola 's shares are worth between $56.00 - $84.00 each. The margin of safety around our fair value estimate is driven by the firm's LOW ValueRisk™ rating, which is derived from the historical volatility of key valuation drivers. The estimated fair value of $70 per share represents a price-to-earnings
(P/E) ratio of about 19 times last year's earnings and an implied EV/EBITDA multiple of about 14.9 times last year's EBITDA. Our model reflects a compound annual revenue growth rate of 5.2% during the next five years, a pace that is lower than the firm's 3-year historical compound annual growth rate of 13.4%. Our model reflects a 5-year projected average operating margin of 24.2%, which is above Coca-Cola 's trailing 3-year average. Beyond year 5, we assume free cash flow will grow at an annual rate of 3.1% for the next 15 years and 3% in perpetuity. For Coca-Cola , we use a 8.5% weighted average cost of capital to discount future free cash flows.
Margin of Safety Analysis
Our discounted cash flow process values each firm on the basis of the present value of all future free cash flows. Although we estimate the firm's fair value at about $70 per share, every company has a range of probable fair values that's created by the uncertainty of key valuation drivers (like future revenue or earnings, for example). After all, if the future was known with certainty, we wouldn't see much volatility in the markets as stocks would trade precisely at their known fair values. Our ValueRisk™ rating sets the margin of safety or the fair value range we assign to each stock. In the graph below, we show this probable range of fair values for Coca-Cola . We think the firm is attractive below $56 per share (the green line), but quite expensive above $84
per share (the red line). The prices that fall along the yellow line, which includes our fair value estimate, represent a reasonable valuation for the firm, in our opinion.
Future Path of Fair Value
We estimate Coca-Cola 's fair value at this point in time to be about $70 per share. As time passes, however, companies generate cash flow and pay out cash to shareholders in the form of dividends. The chart to the right compares the firm's current share price with the path of Coca-Cola 's expected equity value per share over the next three years, assuming our long-term projections prove accurate. The range between the resulting downside fair value and upside fair value in Year 3 represents our best estimate of the value of the firm's shares three years hence. This range of potential outcomes is also subject to change over time, should our views on the firm's future cash flow potential change. The expected fair value of $85 per share in Year 3 represents our existing fair value per share of $70 increased at an annual rate of the firm's cost of equity less its dividend yield. The upside and downside ranges are derived in the same way, but from
the upper and lower bounds of our fair value estimate range.
Pro Forma Financial Statements