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To date, there have been many car-sharing articles regarding Zipcar, Inc. (ZIP), Hertz Global Holdings, Inc. (NYSE:HTZ), Avis Budget Group, Inc. (NASDAQ:CAR), and Enterprise Rent-A-Car. We all know the speculative car rental arguments very well; larger companies with deeper pockets, larger number of existing vehicle fleets, and longer operating histories.

Car sharing as an operation, however, is proving to be something a bit more than simply transitioning one's car rental service into a car-sharing service. For instance, there are separate car-sharing platforms including business-to-consumer, B2C, peer-to-peer, P2P, and not-for-profit or co-operative, N4P.

This article will serve as the first of a three part series. The objective of these articles will be to illustrate the global significance of car sharing, to provide a sense of visibility for what Zipcar is up against, and to provide greater transparency for investors to further research.

The emphasis of Part I will focus on the B2C car-sharing market. The list of companies below is organized beginning with Zipcar, as Zipcar has the largest number of car-sharing members in the world. All of the following companies will be listed in magnitude of number of members with exceptions being towards the end of the list.

While most companies were willing to provide this information, not all contributed to the article. Where information was not timely received a not applicable, N/A, was inserted. Additionally, there are potentially hundreds of other car-sharing operations across the globe. This list is meant to provide a general working idea of the car-sharing market and does not represent every global company with car-sharing operations. All numbers and data herein have been sourced where appropriate and it is important for all readers to consider the data in this article as estimates.

Business-to-Consumer

Most of us are generally familiar with the B2C car-sharing model. There is usually a sign-up fee, a membership fee, hourly rates, daily rates, and to a lesser extent, weekly rates, all dependent upon the type of plan selected. The plans typically provide for gas expenses, insurance coverage (there are deductibles and some payment requirements), up to a certain amount of free mileage, parking expenses, and road-side assistance, and cleaning.

Some B2C models focus specifically on niche segments including residential, employment, fleet-share, micro-share (by the minute), and hospitality. Regardless the B2C model typically utilizes leased and/or owned vehicles to deliver car-sharing services. Additionally, B2C car-sharing models incorporate radio frequency identification, RFID, cards and/or mobile phone applications for keyless access to parked vehicles at a variety of urban locations. Car-sharing services focus on densely populated urban cities to target customers, who have direct access to car sharing.

Zipcar

Founded in 2000, Zipcar is the world's leading car-sharing network with services located in major metropolitan areas and college campuses throughout the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Spain, and Austria. Zipcar offers more than 30 makes and models of self-service vehicles by the hour or day to residents, businesses, and universities.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C (P2P exposure with the equity investment in Wheelz)
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Roughly 135 cities, Canada - Toronto and Vancouver, United Kingdom - Bristol, Cambridge, London, Maidstone, Oxford, Spain and Austria not fully integrated
  • Number of Members: Roughly 731,000 (as of August 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 11,000 (as of August 2012)
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Thousands
  • Rates & Plans: $25 application fee, $60 annual fee (occasional driving plan only), $50-$250 monthly commitments; rates from $7.65-$15.75/hour, $83-$125/day depending on vehicle type, time of week, region, and plan; 180 free miles U.S. ($0.45-$0.55 per mile thereafter depending on vehicle type), 200 free kilometers Canada, and 40 free miles UK; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Zipcar website - 8/30/2012

Deutsche Bahn AG

Deutsche Bahn AG, DB, was founded in 1994. Today, it is one of the world's leading passenger and logistics companies and operates in 130 countries. The company is committed to providing mobility and logistical services for customers around the world, as well as controlling and operating the related transport networks in the rail, land, ocean, and air freight transport sectors.

The company's railway activities in Germany, with about seven million passengers and 1,138,000 tons of freight transported every day is its core business. Also, DB transports more than two million customers by bus. The main focal points of the DB strategy, in addition to increasing its international activities, are linking together all modes of transport and building overlapping and comprehensive intermodal travel and logistics chains. DB provides car-sharing services under the Flinkster brand name.

Flinkster My Car Club

Flinkster was introduced as a complement to DB car sharing a few years ago as a pilot project in Cologne and Stuttgart, Germany. DB recently merged its car-club activities under the new Flinkster My Car Club brand. Flinkster provides conventional car sharing services.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Europe - Germany, Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland
  • Number of Members: 190,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: 2,500 (as of May 2012)
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 800
  • Rates & Plans: Monthly fee from $0-$12.60 (minimum 12-month term), rates from $0-$2.90/hour, $25-$49/day; $0.23 per kilometer; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Flinkster website - 9/5/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.

Hertz began renting cars in 1918. Hertz is the largest worldwide airport general use car rental brand operating from more than 8,500 locations in 146 countries worldwide. Hertz is the number one airport car rental brand in the U.S. and at 83 major airports in Europe, operating both corporate and license locations in cities and airports in North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. The company also operates one of the world's largest equipment rental businesses, Hertz Equipment Rental Corporation with approximately 325 branches in the U.S., Canada, China, France, Italy, Spain, and Saudi Arabia. Hertz provides car-sharing services through Hertz On Demand and Flexicar.

Hertz On Demand

In December 2008, Hertz Launched Connect by Hertz, a pay-as-you-go car membership club in New York City, Paris, and London with just 22 locations across the globe. In June 2011, Hertz re-branded the Connect by Hertz service to Hertz on Demand. The hourly car-sharing service provides luxury cars, hybrids, electric cars, and more rental car options, available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - 9 cities, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hoboken, Miami, New York, San Antonio, San Francisco, Washington DC, Europe - London, Berlin, Paris
  • Number of Members: 150,000 (as of August 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 700
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 500
  • Rates & Plans: No enrollment or annual membership fees; rates from $5-$11/hour, $63-$108/day depending on vehicle type, time of week, region, and plan; 180 free miles per day; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Hertz On Demand website - 8/30/2012 and other sources as identified.

Flexicar

Flexicar started its life as a pilot project under the name "Flo Carshare". In October 2006, the name was changed to Flexicar, and in December 2010, Flexicar was acquired by Hertz.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Australia - Melbourne and Sydney
  • Number of Members: Roughly 3,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 130
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 125
  • Rates & Plans: Application fee $30, annual damage coverage $70, rates from $9.95-$14.50/hour, $65-$89/day, monthly pre- paid driving credit $15-$200; 100-150 free kilometers ($0.15- $0.20 per kilometer thereafter); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Flexicar website - 9/4/2012 and other sources as identified. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Daimler AG

With roots dating back to 1886, Daimler AG (OTCPK:DDAIF) is one of the world's most successful automotive companies. With its divisions including Mercedes-Benz, Daimler Trucks, Mercedes-Benz Vans, Daimler Buses, and Daimler Financial Services, the Daimler Group is one of the biggest producers of premium cars and the world's biggest manufacturer of commercial vehicles with a global reach. Daimler provides car-sharing services through its smart car product, Car2Go.

Car2Go

Launched in 2008, Car2Go provides many of the similar features from Zipcar, Hertz, and other car-sharing companies. Slight variances include an all-electric smart car vehicle fleet, a geographical boundary where vehicles can be picked up and dropped off allowing for one-way trips, and a pay-by-the-minute billing structure.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Austin, Miami, Portland, San Diego, Washington DC, Canada - Calgary, Toronto, Vancouver, Europe - Lyon, Birmingham, Amsterdam, Vienna, Berlin, Düsseldorf, Hamburg, Köln, Ulm
  • Number of Members: Roughly 120,000 (as of July 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 4,000 (as of June 2012)
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 17 cities within geographical boundaries
  • Rates & Plans: $0.35 per minute, $12.99/hour, $65.99/day (based on San Diego, varies between cities); 150 mile limit ($0.45 per mile thereafter, based on San Diego, varies between cities); electric charging and insurance

Data is derived from the Car2Go website - 8/30/2012 and other sources as identified.

BMW

Founded in 1917, The BMW Group is now one of the ten largest car manufacturers in the world and, with its BMW, MINI, and Rolls-Royce brands, possesses three of the strongest premium brands in the car industry. The group also has a strong market position in the motorcycle sector and operates a successful financial services business. BMW provides car-sharing services through a partnership with Sixt AG branded as DriveNow.

Sixt AG

Sixt AG (OTC:SIXGF) is an international provider of integrated mobility services. Founded in 1912, the company, together with its franchises and partners, is represented in more than 100 countries. Sixt is the market leader for car rentals in Germany and Austria and one of the biggest OEM-manufacturer-independent full-service leasing providers.

DriveNow

In October 2010, BMW on Demand was launched, solidifying the automaker's entry into the car sharing market. DriveNow is a car sharing venture between BMW and Sixt where fuel-efficient premium vehicles will be offered and for use and drop off wherever customers need them. BMW will provide the vehicles and Sixt will provide car-sharing development services and networking.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - San Francisco, Germany - Dusseldorf, Munich, and Berlin
  • Number of Members: Roughly 47,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 1,000
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 4 cities within geographical boundaries
  • Rates & Plans: Membership fee $39, cost per minute $12 first 30 minutes and $0.32 per minute thereafter, cost per parked minute $0.13, maximum price per day $90 plus $0.55 for each mile over 180 miles; $50 per traffic violation, $31.25 per ID replacement, special cleaning minimum fee $62.50 to $350, parking fee $62.50, and towing fee $31.20; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the DriveNow website (San Francisco) - 9/4/2012 and other sources as identified.

Cambio

Cambio is one of the biggest independent car-sharing providers. In 1990 and 1992, environmentally committed people in the German cities of Aachen, Bremen, and Cologne started a new way to use cars on a joint basis. The number of customers increased continuously throughout the 1990s and the service became more and more professional.

In March 2000, the three formerly independent car sharing companies in Aachen, Bremen, and Cologne decided to merge and to found the Cambio Group. The service was then extended to other cities. Today, the Cambio Group is exclusively owned by its customers and staff members. Forty-five percent of all Cambio trips are made for corporate use. More than 1,200 companies and authorities are using Cambio.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Germany and Belgium - 37 cities
  • Number of Members: Roughly 45,000 customers (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 1,400
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 425
  • Rates & Plans: Registration fee $38, monthly cost from $2.50- $31.50, rates from $0.63-$6.80/hour, $29-$68/day; $0.28-$0.52 per kilometer depending on time of day, kilometers driven, and plan; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Cambio website - 9/5/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Stadtmobil CarSharing

The initial Stadtmobil Group was formed in 1999 and the early 2000s. Stadtmobil's primary goal is to strengthen the pillars of mobility including buses and trains, car sharing, bicycles, and pedestrian facilities. Focusing on vehicle efficiency is also of importance for the car-sharing market.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Germany - Hannover, Berlin, Rhein- Ruhr, Rhein-Main, Rhein-Neckar, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart
  • Number of Members: Roughly 38,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 1,800
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 800
  • Rates & Plans: Admission fee $38-$49, deposit $0-$440 (returned upon termination), monthly cost $0-$6.30, rates from $1.25-$5.20/hour, $23-$121/day, $128-$370 weeks beginning any, depending on time of day, and plan; $0.16-$0.32 per kilometer depending on plan; gas, parking, and insurance

Data is derived from the Stadtmobil website - 9/5/2012 and other sources as identified. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

GreenWheels

GreenWheels provides a large car-sharing fleet of cars at over 1,500 locations ensuring car availability. The service is similar to the conventional car-sharing concept of paying for what you use.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom - 90 cities
  • Number of Members: Tens of thousands (as of May 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 2,000
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 1,500
  • Rates & Plans: Deposit of $315 (refund upon termination of subscription), monthly costs from $6.30-$31.50, rates from $3- $7.55/hour, $38/day depending on time of week, vehicle, and plan; $0.14-$0.25 per kilometer; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the GreenWheels website - 9/5/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Communauto

Founded in 1994, Communauto is a company based in Montreal, Quebec that operates a car-sharing service in four cities.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Canada - Quebec, Montreal, Sherbrooke, Ottawa, and Gatineau
  • Number of Members: Roughly 26,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 1,200 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 390
  • Rates & Plans: Membership fee $0-$750, annual fee $39- $360/year, rate from $16.80-$27.95/day; 40+ kilometers included ($0.42 per kilometer thereafter); gas and insurance, all costs dependent on plan and vehicle

Data is derived from the Communauto website - 9/4/2012 and other sources as identified. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Mobizen

Mobizen provides traditional car-sharing services in the Paris area.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Paris area
  • Number of Members: Roughly 4,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 150 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 90
  • Rates & Plans: From $0-$12/month for subscription, $200 deposit cashed warranty (returned at end of contract), from $5.25-$7.85/hour, $39-$78/day, depending on type of vehicle, time of week, and plan; mileage cost from $0.39-$0.52 per mile depending on plan; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Mobizen website - 9/18/2012 and other sources as identified. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

City Car Club

City Car Club is the largest and most experienced independent car-sharing operator in the United Kingdom. The company launched in 2000. Cars are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and can be booked by the hour, day or as long as needed. The cars are located in designated parking bays near residential and work locations and can be booked online or by phone in advance, or at the last minute.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United Kingdom - 14 cities including Bath, Birmingham, Brighton, Bristol, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Huddersfield, Leeds, London, Manchester, Sheffield, Southampton, York
  • Number of Members: Roughly 24,000 (as of April 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 600
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 600
  • Rates & Plans: Annual membership $32-$95, rates from $7.25- $13.85/hour, $60-$123/day, depending on time of day, and plan; $0.37 per mile; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the City Car Club website - 9/5/2012 and other sources as identified. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Enterprise Rent-A-Car

Founded in 1957, Enterprise Rent-A-Car is an internationally recognized brand with more than 6,000 neighborhood and airport locations in the United States, Canada, the U.K., Ireland, and Germany. In 2007, Enterprise launched local car sharing. Enterprise provides car-sharing services through WeCar, PhillyCarShare, and Mint Cars On-Demand. Additionally, Mint Cars On-Demand acquired iCar, Wheels to Go. By the end of 2012, all three of these car-sharing services will be transitioned into the Enterprise Car Share brand name.

WeCar

WeCar by Enterprise car sharing provides a totally automated, membership-based and environmentally friendly transportation solution, whether it is for an hour, a day, a weekend, or longer. WeCar vehicles are accessed round-the-clock and complemented by the extensive Enterprise neighborhood network, all located within 15 minutes of 90 percent of the U.S. population.

Most of the programs through WeCar are "closed" programs, where a corporation or University has requested that the vehicles located on their property and/or nearby for their use, be unavailable for outside parties to join or use the vehicles. As the company is private, most information was not available.

WeCar current customers include roughly 50 colleges and Universities, and roughly 15 cities, districts, and other areas.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - roughly 50 college institutions and 15 cities and other areas
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: N/A
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: N/A
  • Rates & Plans: $35 annual fee, rates from $7-$8/hour, $60/day, overnight rate $35; 200 miles per car share period ($0.20 per mile thereafter); gas and insurance (source: University of Oregon)

Data is derived from the WeCar website 8/30/2012 and other sources as identified.

PhillyCarShare

PhillyCarShare by Enterprise car sharing is an organization that gives access to cars by the hour, whenever needed.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Philadelphia
  • Number of Members: Roughly 13,000 (as of August 2011)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 250
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 190
  • Rates & Plans: Annual fee from $35-$125, rates from $4.45- $7.50/hour, $42-$69/day depending on plan; 185 free miles each trip ($0.25 per mile thereafter); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the PhillyCarShare website - 8/30/2012 and other sources as identified.

Mint Cars On-Demand

Mint Cars On-Demand by Enterprise car sharing provides an affordable and reliable alternative to car ownership and a system to complement mass transit in the Manhattan and Boston areas.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Boston and New York
  • Number of Members: Roughly 8,000 (as of May 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 145
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 65
  • Rates & Plans: Application fee $25, monthly commitment $50- $250, rates from $4.50-$11.70/hour, $55.25-$89.10/day depending on plan; 180 free miles ($0.45 per mile thereafter); gas and insurance.

Data is derived from the Mint Cars On-Demand website - 8/30/2012 and other sources as identified.

GoGet CarShare

GoGet CarShare is more convenient than car rental, cheaper than car ownership, and a great way to help the environment. The company provides similar car-sharing services as those mentioned above.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Australia - Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, and Sydney
  • Number of Members: Roughly 21,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 900
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 880
  • Rates & Plans: Application fee from roughly $25-$49, monthly commitment from roughly $0-$29 per month, security deposit from roughly $0-$500, rates from roughly $5.65-$13.55/hour, $68-$85/day depending on vehicle and plan; 150 free kilometers per day ($0.25 per kilometer thereafter); gas, parking, and insurance

Data is derived from the GoGet CarShare website - 9/4/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Sunfleet

Sunfleet is the largest car-sharing company that offers an alternative to car ownership in Sweden. Cars are accessible around the clock and are able to be used on an hourly basis. The car-sharing model is similar to most other B2C models.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Sweden - 35 cities
  • Number of Members: Roughly 20,000 (as of August 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 660
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 95
  • Rates & Plans: Connection fee $58, monthly cost $0-$22, rates from $4.50-$100/hour, $54-$68/day, depending on time of day, and plan; weekend rental from $58-$147; $0.25-$0.43 per kilometer depending on plan; gas, parking, and insurance

Data is derived from the Sunfleet website - 9/5/2012 and other sources as identified. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

AutoShare

AutoShare is Toronto's first car-sharing network, 100% Canadian and locally owned. In the mid-1990s, a news story about European car sharing brought this market-based solution to air quality and traffic problems, and to the attention of a few enterprising Canadians. In October 1998, AutoShare was launched with a group of 16 pioneering members sharing 3 cars in Riverdale, the Annex, and St. Lawrence Neighborhood.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Canada - Toronto Area
  • Number of Members: Roughly 10,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 285
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 160
  • Rates & Plans: Application fee $29, one-time membership fee $100, annual fee $45 (simple plan only), monthly fee from $0- $12 per month, rates from $7.25-$10.25/hour, $1-$4.50/hour late night rate, $56-$81/day depending on vehicle and plan; 150 free kilometers per day depending on plan ($0.13-$0.25 per kilometer thereafter); gas, parking, and insurance

Data is derived from the AutoShare website - 9/5/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Volkswagen Group

The Volkswagen Group (VKLAF.PK) with its headquarters in Wolfsburg, Germany is one of the world's leading automobile manufacturers and the largest carmaker in Europe. The Group is made up of twelve brands from seven European countries: Volkswagen, Audi, SEAT, SKODA, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porshe, Ducati, Volkswawgen Commercial Vehicles, Scania, and MAN. Volkswagen provides car-sharing services through Quicar.

Quicar

With operations beginning in the fall of 2011, Quicar features 200 VW "Blue Motion" Golf vehicles at roughly 50 parking locations around the City of Hannover.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Germany - Hannover
  • Number of Members: 5,000 (as of June 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 200
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 60
  • Rates & Plans: Damage deductible $1,262, excess surcharge $125/annum or $12/month, rates from $7.57/hour, $38-$227/10- hour, $38-$126/day, $252-$670/week depending on time of day, time of week, vehicle, and plan; $0.19-$0.38 per kilometer; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Quicar website - 9/6/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

ZebraMobil

ZebraMobil is different from conventional car sharing in three important ways. First, ZebraMobil cars can be used and returned directly at roadside without the need for fixed parking spots which would go unused while the car is in use. Instead, ZebraMobil cars are parked in public parking spots just like residents' private cars. Second, ZebraMobil is flexible and does not require prior reservations. Cars may be picked up spontaneously and can be returned when done, although it is possible to make a reservation. Lastly, ZebraMobil offers modern comfortable cars and a simple, easy-to-understand pricing model without deposits or fixed monthly fees.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Germany - Munich
  • Number of Members: Roughly 3,500 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 45
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 45
  • Rates & Plans: No annual or monthly fees, driving rate $18.90/hour, $0.32 per minute, parking rates from $2.30- $7.60/hour, $0.04-$0.13 per minute; 150 free kilometers ($0.13 per kilometer thereafter); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the ZebraMobil website - 9/5/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

VRTUCAR

VRTUCAR car sharing was established in Ottawa in 2000, with one car and four members. The service is structured similarly to traditional car-sharing services.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Canada - Ottawa and Gatineau
  • Number of Members: Roughly 1,800 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 100
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 80
  • Rates & Plans: Membership fee $0-$30 per month, joining fee $0-$99, refundable deposit $0-$500, rates from $3.75-$8/hour, $0.32 per minute, parking rates from $2.30-$7.60/hour, $0.04- $0.13 per minute; $0.15-$0.39 per kilometer thereafter depending on time of day and plans; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the ZebraMobil website - 9/5/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Bluemove

Bluemove's car-sharing service provides an alternative for individuals and companies to achieve savings and sustainability on their trips without sacrificing comfort. Similar B2C car-sharing services are offered, focusing on urban areas and business parks.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Spain - Bilbao, Madrid, and Seville
  • Number of Members: 1,600 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 40
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 40
  • Rates & Plans: Monthly cost from free to $31.40, rates from $3.33-$5.70/hour, $36.65-$50.50/day; $0.29-$0.37 per kilometer up to 100 kilometers ($0.18 to $0.20 per kilometer thereafter); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Bluemove website - 9/4/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

CommunityCar

CommunityCar was launched in October 2003. The company provides traditional car-sharing services.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Madison
  • Number of Members: 1,400 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: 15
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 14
  • Rates & Plans: Monthly fees from $25-$50, prepay plans from $100-$800, rates from $8.25-$9.95/hour, insomniac rate $3.50/hour, $85/day; 150 free miles per day ($0.48 per mile thereafter) depending on plans; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the CommunityCar website - 9/8/2012.

Zazcar

Zazcar is the first car-sharing company in Latin America. The company provides car-sharing services including benefits of a private car without bearing the costs and responsibilities of being a car owner. Benefits include mobility, economy, convenience, and sustainability.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Brazil - Sao Paulo
  • Number of Members: Roughly 1,000 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 60
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 45
  • Rates & Plans: Annual membership $0-$29.50, Monthly cost from $39-$240, Zazcard $27, rates from $8.30-$24.15/hour, $75- $243/day, overnight rate from $6.90/hour and overnight period $33-$106, depending on time of day, and plan; 100 free kilometers; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Zazcar website - 9/5/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Carrot

Carrot was founded in Mexico and just recently began operations in June 2012. The company is based on the Zipcar model and provides car-sharing services in Mexico City.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Mexico - Mexico City
  • Number of Members: Roughly 750 (as of June 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: 18
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 18
  • Rates & Plans: Monthly cost of $0.25/day, rates from $6.90/hour, $55/day; 15 kilometers for each hour reserved; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Carrot website - 9/4/2012 and other sources as identified. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

CarShareHFX

CarShareHFX provides its members with exclusive access to its vehicles. By becoming a member, customers gain access to a fleet of cars that can be reserved at low cost for a half-hour, an hour, a day, or longer. Cars are located in the heart of neighborhoods and available without delay, 24/7.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Canada - Halifax and Dartmouth
  • Number of Members: 650 (as of January 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: 20
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 15
  • Rates & Plans: Annual membership fee $39-$395, rates from $2.75-$5.95/hour, $18-$59.50/day depending on plan; membership bonds from $0-$750 depending on plan; 100 free kilometers ($0.17-$0.36 per kilometer thereafter depending on plan); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the CarShareHFX website - 9/4/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

CityHop

CityHop began operating in September 2007. CityHop is a joint venture between former Auckland City Counselor, Victoria Carter and JUCY Rentals, one of New Zealand's largest independent rental car companies.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: New Zealand - Auckland, Christchurch, and Wellington
  • Number of Members: Roughly 500 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 20
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 19
  • Rates & Plans: Annual membership $52-$75 depending on term, rates from $12-$24/hour depending on time of day, $60/day; 100 free kilometers ($0.20 per kilometer thereafter); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the CityHop website - 9/4/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Mob Carsharing

Mob Carsharing is the first car-sharing service in Portugal, located in Lisbon, but customers can go to any point in Portugal and Spain.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Portugal - Lisbon
  • Number of Members: 250 (as of September 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: 10
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 8
  • Rates & Plans: Rates from $2.50-$3.75/hour, $65-$90/12-hour, $90-$128/day, $166-$220/2-day; from $0.42-$0.50 per kilometer; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Mob Carsharing website - 9/10/2012.

Autolib

Autolib began service in 2011 and similarly uses a conventional car-sharing model for accessibility in urban areas. One variance is that one-way trips are part of the service. Services are for public individuals and professionals.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: France - Lyon and Villeurbanne
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 90
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 35
  • Rates & Plans: Application fee $51, deposit $192-$385 (returned upon termination), monthly rates from $16-19, support $2.70, rates from $2.70-$4.50/hour, $27-$45/day depending on vehicle type, time of day, and plan; $0.51-$0.81 per kilometer (first 100 kilometers) and $0.31-$0.50 thereafter depending on vehicle type and plan; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Autolib website - 9/8/2012.

U-Haul

Since 1945, U-Haul has been serving do-it-yourself movers and their households. The concept for U-Haul was generated post World War II based upon the need for do-it-yourself moving equipment that would be available on a one-way, nationwide basis.

Today, U-Haul with a network of more than 15,950 locations in all 50 United States and 10 Canadian provinces, is the first choice of do-it-yourself movers. U-Haul is the consumer's number one choice as the largest installer of permanent trailer hitches in the automotive aftermarket industry. U-Haul also supplies alternative-fuel for vehicles and backyard barbecues as one of the nation's largest retailers of propane. U-Haul provides car-sharing services through UhaulCarShare service.

UhaulCarShare

U Car Share began operating in 2007 and changed its name to UhaulCarShare in 2011. UhaulCarShare members have access to cars 24/7 and members pay only for what they use, in one low hourly rate and flexible rate plan. The majority of areas served are Universities and to a lesser extent, downtown areas.

Recent UhaulCarShare customers include: Graceland University, and Appalachian State University.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Roughly 25 Universities/downtown areas
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 40
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 30
  • Rates & Plans: Application fee $25, rates begin at $4.95 (plus $0.59 per mile) then switch to $8-$12/hour; 180 miles free ($0.49 per mile thereafter); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the UhaulCarShare website - 8/30/2012

Respiro Car Sharing

Resprio Car Sharing was founded in December 2008. The company provides traditional car-sharing services. The company was the first car sharing service in Madrid.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Spain - Madrid
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 40
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: Roughly 40
  • Rates & Plans: Annual fee $0-$103, monthly fee $0-$15, rates from $4.61-$7.25/hour, $51-$65/day depending on plan and vehicle; 20 free kilometers ($0.17- $0.33 thereafter depending on kilometers); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Respiro CarSharing website - 9/8/2012.

GreenCar Hawaii

GreenCar Hawaii (GreenCar) is the leading provider of Personal VehicleShared Mobility (PVSM) services in Hawaii, or car-sharing services. The company offers visitors an all-inclusive hourly rate (gas, mileage, and rental) and clean-energy vehicles on-demand directly from their hotel. GreenCar is the first hospitality car-sharing service within the B2C car-sharing market.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Kauai and Oahu
  • Number of Members: N/A (currently membership is not part of the business model)
  • Number of Vehicles: 21
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 6 hotels (Kauai/Poipu: Grand Hyatt Kauai Resort & Spa, Koa Kea Hotel & Resort, Marriott's Waiohai Beach Club - Oahu/Waikiki: DoubleTree Alana by Hilton, Equus Hotel & Marina Tower, The Waikiki Parc Hotel)
  • Rates & Plans: Rates from $15-$20/hour (up to 7 hours), $95- $115/day (12 hours), $125-$150/overnight (24 hours), $7.50 Hawaii State surcharge, $4.16%-$4.72% variable Hawaii State general excise tax; all mileage included; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the GreenCar website - 8/30/2012

GoCar

GoCar CarSharing Ltd is in partnership with the German car-sharing company Cambio, one of the largest car-sharing companies in the world. GoCar was launched in Cork City in September 2008.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Ireland - Cork and Dublin
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 20
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 17
  • Rates & Plans: Application fee $62.90, monthly membership fee $6.30, rates from $3.15-$6.30/hour; $0.60 per kilometer; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the GoCar website - 9/4/2012. All currencies are converted using Yahoo Finance.

Carpingo

Carpingo serves as Brooklyn's car-sharing community and was launched in August 2012. Carpingo fuses the personality, responsibility, and ease of a car-share community with the efficiency and availability of a traditional rental company.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Brooklyn Area
  • Number of Members: N/A (just launched as of August 14, 2012)
  • Number of Vehicles: Roughly 20
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 9
  • Rates & Plans: Rates from $6.50-$8/hour, $4.20-$75/month; 180 free miles per day; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the Carpingo website - 9/4/2012.

IBILEK Car Sharing

IBILEK Car Sharing belongs to IBIL, manager of electric vehicle charging, SA, owned 50% between EVE and REPSOL. IBILEK vehicle models have different features and sizes tailored to the needs of mobility. These are located near the user, and allow for 24/7 access.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: Spain - Bilbao, Barakaldo, Donostia- San Sebastian, Vitoria-Gasteiz
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: 9
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 9
  • Rates & Plans: Monthly cost $13-$64, rates from $11.50/hour, $81/day; 15-20 free kilometers/hour ($0.32-$0.45 thereafter) depending on plan and vehicle; gas and insurance

Data is derived from the IBILEK Car Sharing website - 9/8/2012.

TIMECAR

TIMECAR is a membership-based car-sharing service that provides 24/7 access to vehicles on an hourly and daily basis across Oklahoma and Texas. The service is similar to Zipcar.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Marfa, Norman, Oklahoma City
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: 10
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 3
  • Rates & Plans: $25 application fee, $50 annual fee (occasional driving plan only), $50-$150 monthly commitment plans; rates from $4.25-$13/hour, $58.65-$95/day depending on vehicle, time of week, region, and plan; 180 free miles ($0.45 per mile thereafter); gas and insurance

Data is derived from the TIMECAR website - 8/30/2012.

LAXCarShare

LAXCarShare is a minority, woman owned, private car-sharing service that was founded in July 2009. Serving the residents of the Los Angeles area, car sharing creates the perfect alternative to owning a personal car. LAXCarShare encourages the use of all forms of alternative transportation options: walking, riding the bus, and now car sharing.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Los Angeles Area
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: N/A
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: 7
  • Rates & Plans: Rates beginning at $7-$8/hour, $60/day depending on plan; 180 free miles per day ($0.45 per mile thereafter), gas and insurance

Data is derived from the LAXCarShare website - 9/4/2012.

Avis Budget Group, Inc.

Avis Budget Group operates two of the leading global brands in the vehicle rental industry through Avis and Budget. Avis is a leading rental car supplier that primarily serves the premium commercial and leisure segments of the travel industry. Budget is a leading rental car supplier competing within value-conscious segments of the industry in the United States and other regions, and as a premium brand in Canada, the Caribbean, and other parts of the world. Budget also operates one of the leading truck rental businesses in the U.S.

Avis Budget Group and its subsidiaries and licensees provide a complete range of vehicle rental services through 10,000 rental locations in approximately 175 countries around the world. Avis Car Rental and its subsidiaries operate one of the world's best-known car rental brands with approximately 5,200 locations in more than 165 countries. Budget offers vehicles at more than 3,000 locations in more than 120 countries.

Avis does not currently provide residential-based car-sharing services. It did launch the "Avis On Location" program in August of 2011. Avis On Location enables the Company to rent vehicles and accept returns on corporate campuses and at virtually any location. It is designed to serve the hourly, daily, and one-way rental needs of commercial accounts and is integrated with client's corporate travel rental car program and Avis Preferred, the Avis counter-bypass program.

  • Car Sharing Type: B2C (employment focus only)
  • Cities/Regions Served: United States - Roughly 30 cities/areas
  • Number of Members: N/A
  • Number of Vehicles: N/A
  • Number of Vehicle Locations: N/A
  • Rates & Plans: N/A

Data is derived from the Avis Car Rental website - 9/6/2012.

Other Car Sharing Companies to Note:

Movo Movo - Spain

JerseyCarShare - Has not launched yet

Conclusion

Key Points

There are some key points that we can take away from the information provided. First, from the available data we can gather that there is a market of roughly 1.5 million B2C car-sharing members globally. This number is a low estimate as there are potentially more global B2C car-sharing companies not included in this list. Of the roughly 40 companies this list represents, not all include member data. Based on this observed information, however, Zipcar maintains a roughly 48% share of this conservative market estimate.

Second to note is that while Zipcar is by far the leader in car sharing, the first-tier of competition is mostly owned by much larger transportation sector companies including DB, Hertz, and Daimler. For clarification, I consider Zipcar first-tier competitors to have over one-hundred thousand members, second-tier competitors to have between forty to just fewer than one-hundred thousand members, third-tier competitors to have between ten to just fewer than forty thousand members, and fourth-tier competitors to have below ten thousand members. Second-tier competition is primarily from smaller individual companies with the exception being BMW and Sixt partnering to develop DriveNow. Third-tier competition again is primarily from smaller individual companies with the exception of Enterprise owning WeCar, PhillyCarShare, and Mint. Volkswagen owning Quicar is the only example of a major company-owned car-sharing service from the fourth-tier of competition.

Based on the public research, we can assume that within these 40 B2C companies, the largest car-sharing services to date are represented.

Car Rental Review

While Hertz and Enterprise have been working on developing car sharing for the past 5-6 years, Daimler, BMW, Sixt, and Volkswagen have recently entered the market. Zipcar has partnership agreements with both Ford Motor Co. (NYSE:F) and Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (NYSE:HMC) to use their newer model vehicles within the Zipcar fleet. As a wider spectrum of transportation sector companies move into the car-sharing market, this increases the potential for Zipcar to be acquired.

It also changes the dynamic regarding car rental companies competing within the car-sharing market in that larger companies are gaining more interest and investing into the market. We need to think about how car sharing fits into these changing trends as a stand-alone company, within car rental services, within major transportation companies, and auto manufacturers. The key trend is that market growth is continuing on a global scale.

At first glance, it appears that Hertz has grown well within the car-sharing market attaining the third highest number of members to date. However, it is unclear if these are existing members of Hertz's other car rental programs. If car rental companies are not able to distinguish their rental customers from car-sharing customers, they may not be able to effectively compete. Hertz has also displayed strong development of its car-sharing program in New York City, but not much elsewhere.

Enterprise has grown and consolidated its car-sharing programs through acquisitions. To date, its membership numbers place them in the middle area of the third-tier of competition. It seems to be gaining some traction with the WeCar program which focuses on University car-sharing services and to a lesser extent on cities and districts. PhillyCarShare has a significant presence in Philadelphia and Mint has not made that much of an impact in Boston and New York. Zipcar and other car-sharing services continue to offer formidable competition for all of these services.

Avis is moving forward with equipping vehicles with RFID technologies, yet has not provided any details to date whether vehicles will be relocated in a disaggregate fashion to replicate the car-sharing model. Avis On Location for corporate clients provides an employment-specific sharing service, but is one of its more limited services as it focuses heavily on major corporate campuses such as Hewlett Packard.

Zipping to Zuccess

Zipcar is by far the dominant car-sharing service in the US and from a global perspective. There are many newer services developing within the US with a strong focus on P2P marketplace models. The P2P model and N4P car-sharing services will be discussed in Parts II and III of this series.

Europe provides excellent opportunities for continued car-sharing growth. Germany is intensely competitive and other countries are seeing rapid growth including France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Spain to a lesser extent. GoGet in Australia has seen car-sharing growth close to 100% over the past year. Car-sharing markets are also emerging in Latin America, Mexico, and Asia.

Zipcar has a solid track record of growing its membership base through organic growth and acquisitions. The company has not had a smooth path to date as a public company, yet it still has the potential to be able to attain positive net income and free cash flow at year-end. The car-sharing market is becoming more and more fragmented as new platforms progress. The company that takes the lead and is able to scale and consolidate will significantly be able to leverage itself as either a premium buyout candidate or a well-positioned car-sharing market leader. The next two quarters will be crucial for Zipcar to provide operational success and to continue to take advantage of this emerging market.

Source: Zipcar Versus The Competition: A Comprehensive Perspective On Global Car Sharing, Part I