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Determining a company's financial health is a very important step in making a decision on whether or not to invest or to stay invested. There are many different ways to compute a company's financial health. In this test, I will be considering Apache Corporation's (NYSE:APA) profitability, debt and capital, and operating efficiency. Based on these criteria, we get to see sales, returns, margins, liabilities, assets, returns, and turnovers.

Note: All numbers sourced from Morningstar, Yahoo Finance and the company website.

Profitability

Profitability is a class of financial metrics that are used to assess a business's ability to generate earnings, compared with expenses and other relevant costs incurred during a specific period of time.

In this section, we will look at four tests of profitability. They are: Net Income, Operating Cash Flow, Return on Assets, and Quality of Earnings. From these four metrics, we will establish if the company is making money, and gauge the quality of the reported profits.

  1. Net Income 2011 = $4.584 billion

To pass, the company needs to have a positive net income. Apache Corp. passes.

  1. Operating Cash Flow 2011 = $8.093 billion

Operating Cash Flow is the cash generated from the operations of a company, generally defined as revenue less all operating expenses, but calculated through a series of adjustments to net income.

To pass, the company needs to have a positive operating cash flow. Apache passes.

  1. ROA - Return On Assets

ROA is an indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. ROA gives an idea as to how efficient management is at using its assets to generate earnings. Calculated by dividing a company's net income by its total assets, ROA is displayed as a percentage. Sometimes this is referred to as "return on investment."

  • ROA in 2010 = 6.98%

  • ROA in 2011 = 8.81%

  • Net income growth, 2010 = $3.032 billion to 2011 = $4.584 billion, a increase of 51.19%

  • Total Asset growth, 2010 = $43.425 billion to 2011 = $52.051 billion, an decrease of 19.86%

In 2010-11, Apache Corporation's ROA went from 6.98% to 8.81%. As the ROA increased, Apache passes.

  1. Quality of Earnings

Quality of Earnings is the amount of earnings attributable to higher sales or lower costs rather than artificial profits created by accounting anomalies such as inflation of inventory.

  • Operating Cash Flow 2011 = $8.093 billion

  • Net Income 2011 = $4.584 billion

To pass, the operating cash flow must exceed the net income. Apache passes, as operating cash flow exceeds net income.

Debt and Capital

The Debt and Capital section establishes if the company is sinking into debt or digging its way out. It will also determine if the company is growing organically or raising cash by selling off stock.

  1. Total Liabilities to Total Assets, or TL/A ratio

TL/A ratio is a metric used to measure a company's financial risk by determining how much of the company's assets have been financed by debt.

  • Total Assets - 2010 = $43.425 billion

  • Total Assets - 2011 = $52.051 billion

  • Equals an increase of 19.86%

  • Total Liabilities 2010 = $19.048 billion

  • Total liabilities 2011 = $23.058 billion

  • Equals an increase of 21.05%

Apache Corporation's increase in total assets was less the percentage increase of total liabilities. Total assets increased by 19.86%, while the total liabilities increased by 21.05%. As the total assets did not exceed the total liabilities, Apache does not pass.

  1. Working Capital

Working Capital is a general and quick measure of liquidity of a firm. It represents the margin of safety or cushion available to the creditors. It is an index of the firm's financial stability. It is also an index of technical solvency and an index of the strength of working capital.

  • Current Assets/Current liabilities

  • Current Ratio 2010 = 11.33

  • Current Ratio 2011 = 9.52

Apache Corporation's current ratio went from 11.33 in 2010 to 9.52 in 2011. As Apache Corporation's current ratio decreased, Apache does not pass.

  1. Shares Outstanding
  • 2010 Shares Outstanding = 382 million

  • 2011 Shares Outstanding = 384 million

To pass, the company's shares must increase less than by 2%. Apache Corporation's shares increased by 0.52%. Apache passes.

Operating Efficiency

Operating Efficiency is a market condition that exists when participants can execute transactions and receive services at a price that equates fairly to the actual costs required to provide them. An operationally efficient market allows investors to make transactions that move the market further toward the overall goal of prudent capital allocation without being chiseled down by excessive frictional costs, which would reduce the risk/reward profile of the transaction.

  1. Gross Margin: Gross Income/Sales

The gross profit margin is a measurement of a company's manufacturing and distribution efficiency during the production process. The gross profit tells an investor the percentage of revenue/sales left after subtracting the cost of goods sold. A company that boasts a higher gross profit margin than its competitors and industry is more efficient. Investors tend to pay more for businesses that have higher efficiency ratings than their competitors, as these businesses should be able to make a decent profit as long as overhead costs are controlled (overhead refers to rent, utilities, etc.).

  • Gross Margin 2010 = $9.882 billion/ $12.092 billion = 81.7%
  • Gross Margin 2011 = $13.987 billion/ $16.888 billion = 82.8%

The gross margin increased from 81.7% in 2010 to 82.8% in 2011. As the gross margin increased, Apache passes.

  1. Asset Turnover

The formula for the asset turnover ratio evaluates how well a company is utilizing its assets to produce revenue.

The numerator of the asset turnover ratio formula shows revenues found on a company's income statement and the denominator shows total assets, which is found on a company's balance sheet. Total assets should be averaged over the period of time that is being evaluated.

  • Sales growth - 2010 sales = $12.092 billion

  • Sales growth - 2011 sales = $16.888 billion

  • 39.66% sales increase

  • Asset growth - Assets in 2010 = $43.425 billion

  • Asset growth - Assets in 2011 = $52.051 billion

  • Asset increase of 19.86%

As the sales growth exceeded the asset growth, this implies that the company is producing revenue on its assets. Apache passes.

Based on the nine tests that Apache Corporation received on profitability, debt and capital, and operating efficiency, the company achieved seven passes, out of nine - this is a strong grade for financial health. Apache did not pass the TL/A ratio and the working capital aspects of the test. As the company did not pass the TL/A ratio this implies that the company is financing its assets through debt. As the company did not pass the working capital aspect of the test this implies that the company did not have as much liquidity as it did a year ago. These are a few of aspects of the company to watch moving forward, but overall the company looks to be very strong regarding financial health. Based on the nine tests, overall, Apache Corporation is showing very strong results.

Source: Apache Corporation: Inside The Numbers