CRI report: Stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or interrupted, either by blood clots or ruptured blood vessels, depriving the brain of oxygen and nutrients, ultimately leading to the death of brain cells (AHA, 2013). The two major types of strokes, acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke, constitute 78%-87% and 13%-22% of the total stroke cases worldwide, respectively (AHA, 2013; O'Donnell et al., 2010). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 15 million people in the world suffer a stroke every year, of which one third die and another third experience permanent disability (WHO, 2013a). Globally, stroke is the second leading cause of mortality in people ages 60 years and over, and is the fifth leading cause of mortality in people ages 15-59 years (WFH, 2013). Stroke is also the second leading cause of disability after dementia, which includes the loss of vision and/or speech, confusion and paralysis (WHF, 2013). Globally, stroke is a major public health concern due to its association with long-term disability and mortality.
EpiCast Report: Acute Ischemic Stroke - Epidemiology Forecast to 2022 provides an overview of the risk factors, comorbidities, and the global and historical trends for AIS in the six major markets (6MM) (US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK).
In addition, this report includes a 10-year epidemiological forecast of the incident cases of AIS (all new cases of a first-ever AIS in a defined population in a specified time period) and the prevalent cases of AIS (all survivors of a first-ever AIS in a defined population at a specified point in time) segmented by sex and age (ages 20-85+ years).
To forecast the incident and prevalent cases of stroke in the 6MM, EpiCast Report: Acute Ischemic Stroke - Epidemiology Forecast to 2022 selected studies that used the WHO definition of stroke: "rapidly developing clinical signs of focal disturbance of cerebral function, lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death, with no apparent cause other than that of vascular origin." This definition excludes cases of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), which are neurological deficits lasting less than 24 hours. This report also provides the incident cases of AIS segmented by the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria subtypes and the proportion of recurrent cases of AIS out of the total cases of AIS (total cases of AIS = incident cases of first-ever AIS + recurrent cases of AIS) in these major markets (Adams et al., 1993; Alzamora et al., 2008; WHO, 2006).
EpiCast Report: Acute Ischemic Stroke - Epidemiology Forecast to 2022 forecast that the incident cases of AIS in the 6MM will increase by 20.10% over the next decade, from 1.25 million cases in 2012 to 1.50 million cases in 2022, with more than 50% of the cases being in the US alone. The number of prevalent cases of AIS in the 6MM will increase by 18.6% over the forecast period, from 9.48 million cases in 2012 to 11.24 million cases in 2022. The increase in the number of incident and prevalent cases of AIS in the 6MM can be attributed to changing population demographics in the respective markets rather than an actual forecast increase in the incidence or prevalence of AIS. The substantially higher number of prevalent cases of AIS compared with the number of incident cases indicates that a higher proportion of stroke victims survive after the event for longer time periods. However, these stroke survivors will live with serious disabilities, making stroke a major burden for the affected individual and the entire healthcare system in each country.