Apple Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries (collectively “Apple” or the “Company”) design, manufacture, and market personal computers, mobile communication devices, and portable digital music and video players and sell a variety of related software, services, peripherals, and networking solutions. The Company sells its products worldwide through its online stores, its retail stores, its direct sales force, and third-party wholesalers, resellers, and value-added resellers. In addition, the Company sells a variety of third-party Macintosh® (“Mac”), iPhone® and iPod® compatible products, including application software, printers, storage devices, speakers, headphones, and various other accessories and peripherals through its online and retail stores, and digital content and applications through the iTunes Store®. The Company sells to consumer, small and mid-sized business (“SMB”), education, enterprise, government and creative customers. The Company’s fiscal year is the 52 or 53-week period that ends on the last Saturday of September.
As of September 25, 2010, the Company had approximately
46,600 full-time equivalent employees and an additional 2,800
full-time equivalent temporary employees and contractors.
The Company is committed to bringing the best personal computing, mobile communication and portable digital music and video experience to consumers, students, educators, businesses, and government agencies through its innovative hardware, software, peripherals, services, and Internet offerings. The Company’s business strategy leverages its unique ability to design and develop its own operating system, hardware, application software, and services to provide its customers new products and solutions with superior ease-of-use, seamless integration, and innovative industrial design. The Company believes continual investment in research and development is critical to the development and enhancement of innovative products and technologies. In addition to evolving its personal computers and related solutions, the Company continues to capitalize on the convergence of the personal computer, mobile communications and digital consumer electronics by creating and refining innovations, such as iPhone, iPod and the iTunes Store. The Company desires to support a community for the development of third-party products that complement the Company’s offerings through its developer programs. The Company offers various third-party software applications and hardware accessories for Mac® computers, iPhones and iPods through its retail and online stores, as well as software applications for the iPhone and iPod touch platforms through its App Store™. The Company’s strategy also includes expanding its distribution network to effectively reach more of its targeted customers and provide them with a high-quality sales and post-sales support experience.
Consumer and Small and Mid-Sized Business
The Company believes a high-quality buying experience with knowledgeable salespersons who can convey the value of the Company’s products and services greatly enhances its ability to attract and retain customers. The Company sells many of its products and resells certain third-party products in most of its major markets directly to consumers and businesses through its retail and online stores. The Company has also invested in programs to enhance reseller sales, including the Apple Sales Consultant Program, which places Apple employees and contractors at selected third-party reseller locations, and the Apple Premium Reseller Program, through which independently run businesses focus on the Apple platform and provide a high level of customer service and product expertise. The Company believes providing direct contact with its targeted customers is an efficient way to demonstrate the advantages of its products over those of its competitors.
At the end of fiscal 2009, the Company had opened a total of 273 retail stores, including 217 stores in the U.S. and 56 stores internationally. The Company has typically located its stores at high-traffic locations in quality shopping malls and urban shopping districts. By operating its own stores and locating them in desirable high-traffic locations, the Company is better positioned to control the customer buying experience and attract new customers. The stores are designed to simplify and enhance the presentation and marketing of the Company’s products and related solutions. To that end, retail store configurations have evolved into various sizes to accommodate market-specific demands. The stores employ experienced and knowledgeable personnel who provide product advice, service and training. The stores offer a wide selection of third-party hardware, software, and various other accessories and peripherals that complement the Company’s products.
Throughout its history, the Company has focused on the use of technology in education and has been committed to delivering tools to help educators teach and students learn. The Company believes effective integration of technology into classroom instruction can result in higher levels of student achievement, especially when used to support collaboration, information access, and the expression and representation of student thoughts and ideas. The Company has designed a range of products and services to address the needs of education customers, which includes one-to-one (“1:1”) learning. A 1:1 learning solution typically consists of a networked environment that includes a portable computer for every student and teacher. In addition, the Company supports mobile learning and real-time distribution and accessibility of education related materials through iTunes U, which allows students and teachers to share and distribute educational media directly through their computers and mobile communication devices.
Enterprise, Government and Creative
The Company also sells its hardware and software products to customers in enterprise, government and creative markets in each of its geographic segments. These markets are also important to many third-party developers who provide Mac-compatible hardware and software solutions. Customers in these markets utilize the Company’s products because of their high-powered computing performance and expansion capabilities, networking functionality, and seamless integration with complementary products. The Company designs its high-end hardware solutions, including Mac Pro desktops, MacBook® Pro and MacBook Air® portable systems, and Xserve® servers, to incorporate the power, expandability, and other features desired by these professionals. The Company’s operating system, Mac OS® X, incorporates powerful graphics and audio technologies and features developer tools to optimize system and application performance.
In addition to consumer, SMB, education, enterprise, government and creative markets, the Company provides hardware and software products and solutions for customers in the information technology and scientific markets.
The Company manages its business primarily on a geographic basis. The Company’s reportable operating segments consist of the Americas, Europe, Japan and Retail. The Americas, Europe and Japan reportable segments do not include activities related to the Retail segment. The Americas segment includes both North and South America. The Europe segment includes European countries as well as the Middle East and Africa. The Retail segment operates Apple-owned retail stores in the U.S. and in international markets. Each reportable geographic operating segment and the Retail operating segment provide similar hardware and software products and similar services. Further information regarding the Company’s operating segments may be found in Part II, Item 7 of this Form 10-K under the subheading “Segment Operating Performance,” and in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements at Note 9, “Segment Information and Geographic Data.”
The Company offers a range of personal computing products, mobile communication devices, and portable digital music and video players, as well as a variety of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions and various third-party hardware and software products. The Company designs, develops, and markets to Mac and Windows users its iPhone mobile communication devices and its family of iPod digital music and video players, along with related accessories and services, including the online distribution of third-party digital content and applications through the Company’s iTunes Store. In addition, the Company offers its own software products, including Mac OS X, the Company’s proprietary operating system software for the Mac; server software and related solutions; professional application software; and consumer, education, and business oriented application software. The Company’s primary products are discussed below.
Mac Hardware Products
The Company offers a range of personal computing products including desktop and notebook computers, servers, related devices and peripherals, and various third-party hardware products. The Company’s Mac desktop and portable systems feature Intel microprocessors, the Company’s Mac OS X Version 10.6 Snow Leopard® (“Mac OS X Snow Leopard”) operating system and iLife® suite of software for creation and management of digital photography, music, movies, DVDs and websites.
The MacBook Pro family of notebook computers is designed for professionals and consumers. In June 2009, the Company updated its aluminum unibody MacBook Pro line to include 13-inch, 15-inch and 17-inch models. Each MacBook Pro includes an LED-backlit display, a glass Multi-Touch™ trackpad, an illuminated keyboard, an SD card or ExpressCard slot, a FireWire® 800 port, built-in AirPort Extreme® 802.11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2.1. The 13-inch MacBook Pro includes up to 2.53 GHz in processor speed and an NVIDIA GeForce 9400M graphics processor. The 15-inch and 17-inch MacBook Pro models offer up to 3.06 GHz in processor speed and the NVIDIA GeForce 9600M GT discrete graphics processor.
The MacBook is designed for consumer and education users. In October 2009, the Company updated its MacBook with a new polycarbonate unibody design that includes an LED-backlit display and a glass Multi-Touch™ trackpad. The MacBook includes up to 2.26 GHz in processor speed, NVIDIA GeForce 9400M graphics processor, support for up to 4GB of 1066 MHz SDRAM memory, up to a 500 GB Serial ATA hard drive, a SuperDrive®, built-in AirPort Extreme 802.11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2.1.
In June 2009, the Company updated its MacBook Air, an ultra-slim notebook computer that measures 0.16-inches at its thinnest point and 0.76-inches at its maximum height when closed. The MacBook Air includes up to 2.13 GHz processor speed with 6MB of Level 2 cache, NVIDIA GeForce 9400M graphics processor, 2GB of memory, and a 128GB hard drive. The MacBook Air includes a 13.3-inch LED-backlit widescreen display, a full-size backlit keyboard, a built-in iSight® video camera, a trackpad with Multi-Touch gesture support, and built-in AirPort Extreme 802.11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2.1.
The Mac Pro desktop computer is targeted at business and professional customers and is designed to meet the performance, expansion, and networking needs of the most demanding Mac user. In March 2009, the Company introduced an updated Mac Pro featuring up to two Intel Quad-Core Xeon processors running at up to 2.93 GHz, 8GB of shared Level 3 cache per processor, and up to 32GB of 1066 MHz SDRAM memory. The Mac Pro also features a direct attach storage solution for snap-in installation of up to four 1TB hard drives for a total of 4TB of internal storage, up to two double-layer SuperDrive disk drives, Bluetooth 2.1 and optional AirPort Extreme 802.11n wireless networking.
The iMac desktop computer is targeted at consumer, education and business customers. In October 2009, the Company introduced new iMac models, which feature 21.5-inch or 27-inch LED-backlit displays in a glass and aluminum enclosure. The iMac includes up to 3.33 GHz processor speed, up to 16GB of 1066 MHz SDRAM memory, multiple graphics card options, up to a 2TB Serial ATA hard drive and a slot-loading double-layer SuperDrive. The 27-inch iMac model also features an Intel Quad-Core i5 or i7 processor running at up to 2.8 GHz, and is expected to be available in November 2009. All iMac models include a built-in iSight video camera, AirPort Extreme 802.11n wireless networking, Bluetooth 2.1 and come with the new wireless Magic Mouse, the first mouse with Multi-Touch technology.
The Mac mini is a desktop computer measuring 6.5 by 6.5 by 2-inches. In October 2009, the Company updated the Mac mini line to include up to 2.66 GHz processor speed, up to 4GB of 1066 MHz SDRAM memory, up to a 500GB hard drive and NVIDIA GeForce 9400M integrated graphics. All Mac mini models include built-in AirPort Extreme 802.11n wireless networking, Bluetooth 2.1, a total of five USB 2.0 ports, and one FireWire 800 port. Mac mini includes dual display support and can operate displays with Mini DisplayPort or DVI connections. The Company also offers a Mac mini that is configured with Mac OS X Snow Leopard Server, featuring two 500GB hard drives for a total of 1TB of server storage.
Xserve is a 1U rack-mount server available with up to two 2.93 GHz Quad-Core Intel Xeon processors and features Mac OS X Server 10.6 Snow Leopard, which became available in August 2009. Xserve supports up to 24GB of random access memory, remote management, storage drives of up to 3TB, an optional 128GB solid state drive and an optional internal Xserve RAID card.
iPhone combines a mobile phone, a widescreen iPod with touch controls, and an Internet communications device in a single handheld product. Based on the Company’s Multi Touch user interface, iPhone features desktop-class email, web browsing, searching, and maps and is compatible with both Macs and Windows-based computers. iPhone automatically syncs content from users’ iTunes libraries, as well as contacts, bookmarks, and email accounts. iPhone allows users to wirelessly access the iTunes Store to purchase and/or download audio and video content as well as thousands of applications. In July 2008, the Company launched the App Store that allows a user to browse, search for, or purchase third-party applications through either a Mac or Windows-based computer or by wirelessly downloading directly to an iPhone or iPod touch.
In June 2009, the Company announced iPhone 3GS, the third-generation iPhone. It combines the features of iPhone 3G, which was released in July 2008, with a built-in three megapixel auto-focus camera, video recording and hands free voice control. iPhone 3GS is a quad-band GSM phone featuring 3G, EDGE and Wi-Fi wireless technologies for data networking, Bluetooth 2.1, and a 3.5-inch touch widescreen with 480-by-320 resolution at 163 pixels per inch. iPhone 3GS provides up to 12 hours of talk time on 2G networks and five hours using 3G networks, up to nine hours of web browsing, up to ten hours of video playback, or up to 30 hours of audio playback. It is available in 16GB and 32GB configurations. The Company also continues to offer the iPhone 3G in a 8GB configuration.
In September 2009, the Company released iPhone 3.1 software, which features Genius technology enhancements including Genius Mixes and Genius recommendations for applications. iPhone 3.1 also incorporates improved syncing capabilities, which allows users to organize their applications in iTunes and sync back to their iPhones. iPhone 3.1 includes Cut, Copy and Paste, Spotlight® Search, MMS messaging and a landscape keyboard for Mail, Notes and Safari®. Certain features of the iPhone 3.1 software are not supported by some of iPhone’s cellular network carriers.
The Company has signed multi-year agreements with various cellular network carriers authorizing them to distribute and provide cellular network services for iPhones. These agreements are generally not exclusive with a specific carrier, except in the U.S., Germany, Spain, Ireland, and certain other countries.
In addition to the Company’s own iPhone accessories, third-party iPhone compatible products, including headsets, cables and docks, power supplies, and carrying cases, are available through the Company’s online and retail stores or from third parties.
Music Products and Services
The Company offers its iPod line of portable digital music and video players and related accessories to Mac and Windows users. All iPods work with the Company’s iTunes digital music management software (“iTunes”) available for both Mac and Windows-based computers. The Company also provides an online service to distribute third-party music, audio books, music videos, short films, television shows, movies, podcasts, and applications through its iTunes Store. In addition to the Company’s own iPod accessories, third-party iPod compatible products are available, either through the Company’s online and retail stores or from third parties, including portable and desktop speaker systems, headphones, car radio solutions, voice recorders, cables and docks, power supplies and chargers, and carrying cases and armbands.
In September 2009, the Company updated the third-generation iPod shuffle, a flash-memory-based iPod which is nearly half the size of the second generation model and is the first music player with the VoiceOver feature enabling it to speak song titles, artists and playlist names. iPod shuffle holds up to 1,000 songs and is the first iPod shuffle to accommodate playlists. iPod shuffles include a shuffle switch feature that allows users to listen to their music in random order or in the order of their playlists synced through iTunes. iPod shuffle works with iTunes’ patent-pending AutoFill option that automatically selects songs to fill the iPod shuffle from a user’s iTunes library. The new iPod shuffle is available in 2GB and 4GB configurations in an aluminum design in a variety of colors, or a special edition 4GB configuration in a stainless steel design.
In September 2009, the Company introduced the new iPod nano, a flash-memory-based iPod. The new iPod nano includes a video camera, microphone and speaker, a built-in FM radio with live pause functionality, iTunes Tagging, and a built-in pedometer. The new iPod nano incorporates a larger 2.2-inch display with 204 pixels per inch, a built-in accelerometer, and an updated user interface featuring Cover Flow® and Shake to Shuffle mode. The new iPod nano also features Genius Mixes, allowing users to automatically create song mixes from their music libraries. The new iPod nano provides up to 24 hours of audio playback or up to five hours of video playback and is available in 8GB and 16GB configurations in a variety of colors.
The iPod classic is an upgraded version of the original iPod, the Company’s hard-drive based portable digital music and video player. In September 2009, the Company introduced an updated version of the iPod classic, which has 160 GB of storage and is capable of holding up to 40,000 songs, 200 hours of video, or 25,000 photos. The iPod classic provides up to 36 hours of audio playback or up to six hours of video playback, features “Genius” technology, and includes a 2.5-inch color screen that can display album artwork, photos, and video content including music videos, video and audio podcasts, short films, television shows, movies, and games.
In September 2009, the Company introduced the third-generation iPod touch, a flash-memory-based iPod that is 0.33-inches thin and features a 3.5-inch widescreen display, Genius technology, a built-in speaker, and an accelerometer. The new iPod touch features peer-to-peer connections, which gives users the ability to play multi-player games with other users, Genius Mixes, and iPhone 3.1 software. The iPod touch’s user interface is based on the Company’s Multi-Touch user interface. It also includes Wi-Fi wireless networking, which allows users to access the iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store and the App Store to purchase and/or download audio and video files, as well as a variety of other applications. The iPod touch is available in 8GB, 32GB and 64GB configurations and features up to 30 hours of audio playback and up to six hours of video playback.
iTunes is an application for playing, downloading, and organizing digital audio and video files and is available for both Mac and Windows-based computers. iTunes is integrated with the iTunes Store, a service that allows customers to find, purchase, rent, and download third-party digital music, audio books, music videos, short films, television shows, movies, games, and other applications. Originally introduced in the U.S. in April 2003, the iTunes Store now serves customers in 23 countries. In September 2009, the Company announced iTunes 9, which includes Genius Mixes, a new feature in Genius technology, Home Sharing, which allows users to transfer music, movies and TV shows among up to five authorized computers, and improved syncing functionality that allows users to organize their iPhone applications in iTunes, to sync music by artist and genre, and to sync photos by Events and Faces. In January 2009, the Company announced it would offer all songs in the iTunes catalog without digital rights management software and that iTunes songs would be available at three standard price points, beginning in April 2009 in most countries.
The Company sells a variety of Apple-branded and third-party Mac-compatible peripheral products directly to end-users through its retail and online stores, including printers, storage devices, computer memory, digital video and still cameras, and various other computing products and supplies.
The Company manufactures the Apple Cinema High Definition Display™, a 30-inch widescreen flat panel display. In October 2008, the Company introduced a 24-inch LED Cinema Display that features a built-in iSight camera, microphone, built-in 2.1 speaker system and MagSafe® charger.
Apple TV is a device that permits users to wirelessly play iTunes content on a widescreen television. Compatible with a Mac or Windows-based computer, Apple TV includes a 160GB hard drive capable of storing up to 200 hours of video, 36,000 songs, 25,000 photos, or a combination of each and is compatible with high definition televisions with resolution up to 1080p. Apple TV connects to a broad range of widescreen televisions and home theater systems and comes standard with high-definition multimedia interface, component video, and both analog and digital optical audio ports. Using AirPort Extreme 802.11n wireless networking, Apple TV can auto-sync content from one computer or stream content from up to five additional computers directly to a television.
Software Products and Computer Technologies
The Company offers a range of software products for consumer, SMB, education, enterprise, government, and creative customers, including the Company’s proprietary operating system software; server software and related solutions; professional application software; and consumer, education, and business oriented application software.
Operating System Software
Mac OS® X is built on an open-source UNIX-based foundation. Mac OS X Snow Leopard is the sixth major release of Mac OS X and became available in August 2009. Mac OS X Snow Leopard features upgraded speed and performance and includes a new version of QuickTime® X, support for Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 and VoiceOver integration with the Multi-Touch trackpad. Mac OS X Snow Leopard refines 90 percent of the projects in Mac OS X, is about half the size of the previous version, and frees up to 7GB of drive space once installed. Snow Leopard retains Stacks, a means of easily accessing files from the Dock; Finder™ that lets users quickly browse and share files between multiple Macs; Quick Look, a way to instantly see files without opening an application; Spaces®, a feature used to create groups of applications and instantly switch between them; and Time Machine®, a way to automatically back up all of the contents of a Mac.
In January 2009, the Company introduced iLife ’09, the latest release of its consumer-oriented digital lifestyle application suite, which features iPhoto®, iMovie®, iDVD®, GarageBand®, and iWeb™. iPhoto is the Company’s consumer-oriented digital photo software application, which includes new features for organizing and browsing photos, including Faces and Places which use face detection, face recognition and GPS geo-tagging technologies. iMovie is the Company’s consumer-oriented digital video editing software application and features the new Precision Editor, video stabilization, advanced drag and drop, and animated travel maps. iDVD® is the Company’s consumer-oriented software application that enables users to turn iMovie files, QuickTime® files, and digital pictures into interactive DVDs. GarageBand® is the Company’s consumer-oriented music creation software application that allows users to play, record and create music using a simple interface. iWeb™ allows users to create online photo albums, blogs and podcasts, and to customize websites using editing tools.
In January 2009, the Company introduced iWork ’09, the latest version of the Company’s integrated productivity suite designed to help users create, present, and publish documents, presentations, and spreadsheets. iWork ’09 includes updates to Pages® ’09 for word processing and page layout, Keynote® ’09 for presentations, and Numbers® ’09 for spreadsheets. Among the new features in iWork, Keynote introduces advanced object transitions, Pages features a new full screen view, and Numbers introduces a quick way to group and summarize data and a simplified way to create complex formulas.
Final Cut Studio®
In July 2009, the Company updated Final Cut Studio®, the Company’s video production suite designed for video professionals. Final Cut Studio 2 features Final Cut Pro® 7 for video editing, DVD Studio Pro® 4 for DVD authoring, Motion 4 for real-time motion graphics, Soundtrack® Pro 3 for audio editing and sound design, Color 1.5 for color grading and finishing, and Compressor 3.5 for encoding media in multiple formats. The Company also offers Final Cut Express 4, a consumer version of the Company’s movie making software, and Final Cut Server 1.5.
In July 2009, the Company updated Logic Studio, a comprehensive suite of professional tools used by musicians and professionals to create, perform, and record music. Logic Studio features Logic® Pro 9, an upgraded version of the Company’s music creation and audio production software application; MainStage® 2, a live performance application; Soundtrack® Pro 3, a professional audio post production software; Compressor 3.5 for encoding in a variety of formats; Studio Instruments, made up of 40 instrument plug-ins; Studio Effects, with 80 professional effect plug-ins; and studio Sound Library. In addition, the Company offers Logic Express 9, a version that includes many of the features of Logic Studio Pro and provides an easy entry into professional music production.
The FileMaker Pro database software offers relational databases and desktop-to-web publishing capabilities. In January 2009, the Company introduced FileMaker Pro 10, which features a new interface, a redesigned and customizable Status Toolbar, the ability to save the results of search and Script Triggers, which launch scripts triggered by user actions or based on time limits. The Company also offers FileMaker Pro 10 Advanced, FileMaker Server 10 and FileMaker Server 10 Advanced.
Internet Software and Services
The Company is focused on delivering seamless integration with and access to the Internet throughout the Company’s products and services. The Company’s Internet solutions adhere to many industry standards to provide an optimized user experience.
QuickTime, the Company’s multimedia software for Mac or Windows-based computers, features streaming of live and stored video and audio over the Internet and playback of high-quality audio and video on computers. QuickTime 7 features H.264 encoding and can automatically determine a user’s connection speed to ensure they are getting the highest-quality content stream possible. QuickTime 7 also delivers multi-channel audio and supports a wide range of industry standard audio formats. The Company also offers QuickTime X, a new version of QuickTime that ships with Mac OS X Snow Leopard, and QuickTime 7 Pro, a suite of software tools, allows creation and editing of Internet-ready audio and video files.
In June 2008, the Company introduced MobileMe, an annual subscription-based suite of Internet services that delivers email, contacts and calendars to and from native applications on iPhone, iPod touch, Macs, and Windows-based computers. MobileMe services include Internet message access protocol mail, an ad-free email service; website hosting for publishing websites from iWeb; iDisk®, a virtual hard drive accessible anywhere with Internet access; Web Gallery for viewing and sharing photos that is fully integrated with iPhoto and iMovie; MobileMe Sync, which keeps Safari bookmarks, iCal® calendars, Address Book information, Keychain®, and Mac OS X Mail preferences up-to-date across multiple computers, iPhones, and iPod touches. When combined with iPhone, MobileMe features Find My iPhone, which helps users locate their lost iPhones, and a new Remote Wipe feature that allows users to erase all data and content if their iPhones cannot be located. MobileMe provides combined email and file storage of 20GB for individuals and 40GB for families with additional storage options.
Research and Development
Because the personal computer, mobile communication and consumer electronics industries are characterized by rapid technological advances, the Company’s ability to compete successfully is heavily dependent upon its ability to ensure a continual and timely flow of competitive products, services and technologies to the marketplace. The Company continues to develop new products and technologies and to enhance existing products in the areas of computer hardware and peripherals, mobile communication devices, consumer electronics products, system software, applications software, networking and communications software and solutions, and Internet services and solutions. The Company may expand the range of its product offerings and intellectual property through licensing and acquisition of third-party business and technology. The Company’s research and development expenditures totaled $1.3 billion, $1.1 billion and $782 million in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively.
Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights and Licenses
The Company currently holds rights to patents and copyrights relating to certain aspects of its computer systems, iPhone and iPod devices, peripherals, software and services. In addition, the Company has registered and/or has applied to register, trademarks and service marks in the U.S. and a number of foreign countries for “Apple,” the Apple logo, “Macintosh,” “Mac,” “iPhone,” “iPod,” “iTunes,” “iTunes Store,” “Apple TV,” “MobileMe” and numerous other trademarks and service marks. Although the Company believes the ownership of such patents, copyrights, trademarks and service marks is an important factor in its business and that its success does depend in part on the ownership thereof, the Company relies primarily on the innovative skills, technical competence and marketing abilities of its personnel.