Horizon Lines, Inc., a Delaware corporation, operates as a holding company for Horizon Lines, LLC (“Horizon Lines”), a Delaware limited liability company and wholly-owned subsidiary, Horizon Logistics Holdings, LLC (“Horizon Logistics”), a Delaware limited liability company and wholly-owned subsidiary, Horizon Lines of Puerto Rico, Inc. (“HLPR”), a Delaware corporation and wholly-owned subsidiary, and Hawaii Stevedores, Inc., a Hawaii corporation (“HSI”).
Our long operating history dates back to 1956, when Sea-Land Service, Inc. (“Sea-Land”) pioneered the marine container shipping industry and established our business. In 1958 we introduced container shipping to the Puerto Rico market, and in 1964 we pioneered container shipping in Alaska with the first year-round scheduled vessel service. In 1987, we began providing container shipping services between the U.S. west coast and Hawaii and Guam through our acquisition from an existing carrier of all of its vessels and certain other assets that were already serving that market. In December 1999, CSX Corporation, the former parent of Sea-Land Domestic Shipping, LLC (“SLDS”), sold the international marine container operations of Sea-Land to the A.P. Møller Maersk Group (“Maersk”) and SLDS continued to be owned and operated by CSX Corporation as CSX Lines, LLC. On February 27, 2003, Horizon Lines Holding Corp. (“HLHC”) (which at the time was indirectly majority-owned by Carlyle-Horizon Partners, L.P.) acquired from CSX Corporation, 84.5% of CSX Lines, LLC, and 100% of CSX Lines of Puerto Rico, Inc., which together with Horizon Logistics and HSI constitute our business today. CSX Lines, LLC is now known as Horizon Lines, LLC and CSX Lines of Puerto Rico, Inc. is now known as Horizon Lines of Puerto Rico, Inc. The Company was formed as an acquisition vehicle to acquire, on July 7, 2004, the equity interest in HLHC. The Company was formed at the direction of Castle Harlan Partners IV. L.P. (“CHP IV”), a private equity investment fund managed by Castle Harlan, Inc. (“Castle Harlan”). In 2005, the Company completed its initial public offering. Subsequent to the initial public offering, the Company completed three secondary offerings, including a secondary offering (pursuant to a shelf registration) whereby CHP IV and other affiliated private equity investment funds managed by Castle Harlan divested their ownership in the Company. Today, as the only Jones Act vessel operator with one integrated organization serving Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico, we are uniquely positioned to serve customers requiring shipping and logistics services in more than one of these markets.
The Company’s services can be classified into two principal businesses, Horizon Lines and Horizon Logistics. Horizon Lines operates as a Jones Act container shipping business with primary service to ports within the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Alaska, Hawaii, and Guam. Horizon Lines also offers terminal services at certain ports. Horizon Logistics provides integrated logistics service offerings, including rail, trucking, warehousing, distribution, expedited logistics, and non-vessel operating common carrier (“NVOCC”) operations.
We believe that we are the nation’s leading Jones Act container shipping and integrated logistics company, accounting for approximately 37% of total U.S. marine container shipments from the continental U.S. to Alaska, Puerto Rico and Hawaii, constituting the three non-contiguous Jones Act markets; and to Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Micronesia. We own or lease 20 vessels, 15 of which are fully qualified Jones Act vessels, and approximately 18,500 cargo containers. We also provide comprehensive shipping and sophisticated logistics services in our markets. We have access to terminal facilities in each of our ports, operating our terminals in Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico and contracting for terminal services in the seven ports in the continental U.S. and in the ports in Guam, Yantian and Xiamen, China and Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
We ship a wide spectrum of consumer and industrial items used every day in our markets, ranging from foodstuffs (refrigerated and non-refrigerated) to household goods and auto parts to building materials and various materials used in manufacturing. Many of these cargos are consumer goods vital to the populations in our markets, thereby providing us with a relatively stable base of demand for our shipping and logistics services. We have many long-standing customer relationships with large consumer and industrial products companies, such as Costco Wholesale Corporation, Johnson & Johnson, Lowe’s Companies, Inc., Safeway, Inc., Toyota Motor Corporation and Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. We also serve several agencies of the U.S. government, including the Department of Defense and the U.S. Postal Service. Our customer base is broad and diversified, with our top ten customers accounting for approximately 35% of revenue and our largest customer accounting for approximately 8% of revenue.
The Jones Act
During 2009, approximately 85% of our revenues were generated from our shipping and logistics services in markets where the marine trade is subject to the coastwise laws of the United States, also known as the Jones Act, or other U.S. maritime cabotage laws.
The Jones Act is a long-standing cornerstone of U.S. maritime policy. Under the Jones Act, all vessels transporting cargo between covered U.S. ports must, subject to limited exceptions, be built in the U.S., registered under the U.S. flag, manned by predominantly U.S. crews, and owned and operated by U.S.-organized companies that are controlled and 75% owned by U.S. citizens. U.S.-flagged vessels are generally required to be maintained at higher standards than foreign-flagged vessels and are supervised by, as well as subject to rigorous inspections by, or on behalf of the U.S. Coast Guard, which requires appropriate certifications and background checks of the crew members. Our trade routes between Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico and the continental U.S. represent the three non-contiguous Jones Act markets. Vessels operating on these trade routes are required to be fully qualified Jones Act vessels. Other U.S. maritime laws require vessels operating on the trade routes between Guam, a U.S. territory, and U.S. ports to be U.S.-flagged and predominantly U.S.-crewed, but not U.S.-built.
Cabotage laws, which reserve the right to ship cargo between domestic ports to domestic vessels, are not unique to the United States; similar laws are common around the world and exist in over 50 countries. In general, all interstate and intrastate marine commerce within the U.S. falls under the Jones Act, which is a cabotage law. We believe the Jones Act enjoys broad support from President Obama and both major political parties in both houses of Congress. We believe that the ongoing war on terrorism has further solidified political support for the Jones Act, as a vital and dedicated U.S. merchant marine is a cornerstone for a strong homeland defense, as well as a critical source of trained U.S. mariners for wartime support.