Integra, headquartered in Plainsboro, New Jersey, is a world leader in regenerative medicine. We employ approximately 3,000 people around the world who are dedicated to improving patient quality of life through the development, manufacturing and marketing of surgical implants and medical instruments. Our products are used to treat millions of patients every year, primarily in neurosurgery, orthopedics and general surgery. Revenues grew to $682.5 million in 2009, an increase of 4% from $654.6 million in 2008.
Founded in 1989, Integra has grown to be a leader in developing medical devices, particularly for neurosurgery, spinal surgery, and orthopedic surgery, and is one of the largest surgical instrument companies in the United States.
Our goal is to become a global leader in the development, manufacturing and marketing of medical devices, implants and instruments. Key elements of our strategy include:
Focusing on our customers. We work with customers whose time is at a premium. We are committed to limit uncertainty by ensuring that we have the best trained staff, on-time delivery of our products and responsive service.
Marketing innovative medical devices. We develop innovative medical devices for orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery and general surgery.
Investing in sales distribution channels to increase market penetration. We have built a large sales team of approximately 350 sales professionals in the United States. Our European sales force consists of approximately 90 professionals and our rest-of-world sales force consists of approximately 30 professionals.
Developing innovative products based on core technologies. We are a leader in regenerative technology. Our proprietary highly purified collagen scaffold technology provides the foundation of our products for duraplasty, dermal regeneration, nerve and tendon repair, and bone repair and regeneration.
Acquiring products that fit existing sales channels. We acquire new products and businesses to increase the efficiency and size of our sales force, stimulate the development of new products, and extend the commercial lives of existing products. We have completed 10 acquisitions since the beginning of 2007, have demonstrated that we can quickly and profitably integrate new products and businesses and have an active program to evaluate more such opportunities.
Our strategy allows us to expand our presence in hospitals and other health care facilities, to integrate acquired products effectively, to create strong sales platforms and to drive short- and long-term revenue and earnings growth.
SALES AND DISTRIBUTION
In the United States, we have three sales channels — Integra Orthopedics, Integra NeuroSciences and Integra Medical Instruments. Within our Integra Orthopedics sales channel, we sell through a large direct sales organization, and through specialty distributors focused on their respective surgical specialties. Integra NeuroSciences sells products through directly-employed sales representatives. The Integra Medical Instruments sales channel sells directly and through distributors, and wholesalers.
PRODUCTS — OVERVIEW
Integra is a fully integrated medical device company offering thousands of products for the medical specialties which we target. Our objective is to develop, acquire or otherwise provide any product that will improve our service to our customers. These products include implants, instruments and equipment for neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery and general surgery. We distinguish ourselves by emphasizing the importance of the relatively new field of regenerative medicine.
In 2009, approximately 22% of our revenues came from surgical implants derived from our proprietary collagen matrix technology. While these products vary in composition and structure, they operate under similar principles. We build our matrix products from collagen, which is the basic structural protein that binds cells together in the body. Our matrices (whether for the dura mater, dermis, peripheral nerves, tendon or bone) provide a scaffold to support the infiltration of the patient’s own cells and the growth of blood vessels. Eventually, those infiltrating cells consume the collagen of the implanted matrix and lay down new native “extracellular matrix.” In their interaction with the patient’s body, our collagen matrices inhibit the formation of scar tissue, so the implant is absorbed over time, leaving healthy native tissue in its place. This basic technology can be applied to many different procedures. We sell regenerative medicine products through most of our sales channels.
ORTHOPEDICS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO
Our orthopedics market category includes products sold by our Integra Extremity Reconstruction and our Integra Spine and OrthoBiologics sales organizations.
Integra Extremity Reconstruction Product Portfolio
Extremity reconstruction is a growing area of the orthopedic market. We define extremity reconstruction to mean the repair of soft tissue and the orthopedic reconstruction of bone in the foot, ankle and leg below the knee, and the hand, wrist, elbow and arm below the shoulder.
Dermal Regeneration and Engineered Wound Dressings. Our dermal repair and regeneration products (INTEGRA® Dermal Regeneration Template, INTEGRAtm Bilayer Matrix Wound Dressing, INTEGRAtm Matrix Wound Dressing, Integratm Flowable Wound Matrix) and the INTEGRAtm Bilayer Wound Matrix are used to treat the chronic wounds that can form on the foot, ankle and lower leg, severe burns, and scar contractures.
Integra’s matrix wound dressings are indicated for the management of wounds including partial and full-thickness wounds, pressure ulcers, venous ulcers, diabetic ulcers, chronic vascular ulcers, tunneled/undermined wounds, surgical wounds (donor sites/grafts, post-laser surgery, podiatric, and wound dehiscence), trauma wounds (abrasions, lacerations, second-degree burns, and skin tears) and draining wounds. We estimate that the market opportunity for products used to treat trauma and chronic wounds in the United States is approximately $1 billion.
There are currently 18 million people with diabetes in the United States. Approximately 15% of these patients incur one or more diabetic foot ulcers during their lifetime. This population is also 15 times more likely to suffer an amputation due to non-healing diabetic foot ulcers. However, approximately 85% of all amputations are preventable if proper intervention is provided. Approximately 500,000 adults seek treatment for venous leg ulcers annually in the United States.
Nerve and Tendon. Surgeons who specialize in foot or hand orthopedic surgery often have to repair nerves and tendons. To address these needs, we offer the NeuraGen® Nerve Guide and the NeuraWraptm Nerve Protector for peripheral nerve repair and protection, and the TenoGlide® Tendon Protector Sheet, all of which are based on our regenerative matrix technology platform. In 2009, we added to this family of products with the launch of the Inforce® Reinforcement Matrix, which may be used for any type of tendon injury that requires surgical reconstruction. We estimate that the worldwide market for the repair of severed, injured, compressed and scarred peripheral nerves is between $40 and $70 million. Tendon and ligament injuries are some of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. Industry sources estimate that there are approximately 700,000 tendon and ligament repair procedures in the United States annually, representing a $1.2 billion market.
Bone and Joint Fixation Devices and Instruments. We offer the extremity reconstruction surgeon a comprehensive set of bone and joint fixation devices for upper and lower extremity reconstruction, including orthopedic implants and surgical devices for small bone and joint procedures involving the foot, ankle, hand, wrist and elbow. Our products address both the trauma and reconstructive segments of the extremities market, an approximately $900 million market in the United States.
We are a leading developer and manufacturer of specialty implants and instruments specifically designed for foot and ankle surgery. In reconstruction of the lower extremities, our leading brands include Newdeal®, the Uni-CPtm Compression Plate, the BOLD® Cannulated Compression Screw, the Uni-Clip®, the Advansys® Mid and Hind Foot Plating Systems, the Hallu®-Fix System, the PANTA® Nail, and Qwix® and Large Qwix® stabilization screws, the HINTEGRA® total ankle prosthesis (sold outside the United States), and the Subtalar MBA® Implant System (Maxwell-Brancheau Arthroereisis System). Customers include orthopedic and podiatric surgeons specializing in lower extremity injuries, of which there are 2,300 and 6,200, respectively, in the United States. In 2009, we launched several new products, including the Hallu®-Lock MTP Arthrodesis System, multiple product line extensions to the highly successful Uni-CPtm Compression System, and the Panta® XL Arthrodesis Nail.
For upper extremity reconstruction, we offer the Universal2tm Total Wrist Implant System, which is recognized as the premier implant for wrist arthroplasty, a procedure that restores the function of the arthritic wrist. Other leading products offered include the Katalysttm Bipolar Radial Head System for elbow reconstruction, the Spidertm Limited Wrist Fusion System for intercarpal arthrodesis, the Viper® Distal Radius Plate for fracture fixation, the Kompressortm Compression Screw System for small bone fixation, the SafeGuard® Mini Carpal Tunnel Release System for treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, and the EndoReleasetm Endoscopic Cubital Tunnel System for treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome.
Bone Graft Substitutes for Extremity Reconstruction. Our comprehensive line of synthetic bone graft substitutes and demineralized bone matrix products includes three distinct product lines — Integra OS® Osteoconductive Scaffold, a bone void filler manufactured from beta tri-calcium phosphate and type I bovine collagen; Trel-Xtm demineralized bone matrix; and Trel-XC®, demineralized bone matrix premixed with cancellous bone.
Bone graft substitutes are used in many of the more than 700,000 extremity fusion and osteotomy procedures annually. The extremity reconstruction bone graft market is estimated at more than $50 million annually in the United States.
Integra Spine and OrthoBiologics Product Portfolio
In 2008, the United States spinal implant market, consisting of thoracolumbar fusion devices, cervical fusion devices, interbody fusion devices, and motion preservation technologies, was valued at approximately $4.2 billion, represents one of the most dynamic and growing segments of the orthopedic industry. Integra Spine provides comprehensive spinal solutions from the occiput to the sacrum, and has 15 spinal fusion systems, a full line of synthetic orthobiologics, minimally invasive spine solutions and motion preservation devices in development.
Spinal Fusion Devices. Many people suffer from chronic back pain, which may be alleviated surgically with a spinal fusion, the process of removing the disc material and fusing two vertebrae together. However, the vertebrae cannot fuse unless bone touches bone. To create this union, surgeons utilize two types of fusion devices - supplemental fixation systems and interbody/vertebral body replacements.
Supplemental fixation devices are plate and rod systems used to keep the vertebra in place, securing the bone to bone union. Interbody/vertebral body replacements are shaped like a cage and used to hold the bone graft in place. They are placed in the disc space and filled with bone graft or bone type material. Successful spinal fusion requires the combination of supplemental fixation and interbody/vertebral body replacement devices. Integra Spine offers each type of device for the different areas of the spine and specific types of diseases.
Supplemental Fixation Systems. According to industry sources, in 2008 the cervical market was valued at more than $700 million. The market consists of posterior and anterior fixation devices, which include plating and rod systems. Integra Spine offers several supplemental fixation systems for cervical procedures. We offer the Tethertm anterior cervical plating system for the anterior side, the Atolltm Occipital-Cervical-Thoracic (“OCT”) system for the posterior side, and the Manta Raytm System in the United States, an anterior cervical plate that provides a unique locking ring on the screw, which eliminates the need for a secondary locking mechanism. With the addition of the Atolltm OCT System in May 2009, Integra Spine now offers spinal fusion solutions throughout the entire spine, from occiput to sacrum.
The degenerative disc market is the largest market segment within the spinal implant market. The majority of the procedures are for patients with degenerative disc disease requiring fusion in the lower lumbar region of the spine. Lower back pain affects approximately 80% of Americans at some point in their lives. When back pain is severe, a pedicle screw system may be used to alleviate the chronic back pain and limited mobility caused by various spinal disorders, including spinal tumors. We address this market with the Coraltm Spinal System used for the correction and stabilization of the lumbar or lower region of the spine, and to correct spinal deformities. In 2009, we introduced the Coraltm Extended Tab Spinal Screw Series for the correction of spinal deformities, such as spondylolisthesis and scoliosis, and 5.5m Coraltm cobalt chrome rods for use in spinal correction and fusion procedures. For 2010, the United States deformity market is estimated to be approximately $539 million.
Interbody/vertebral body replacements. Integra Spine offers a number of interbody/vertebral body replacement devices (“IBD”). These include Vu e-PODtm, Vu L-PODtm, L-PODtm, Vu c-PODtm and Vu Meshtm devices. Each of these devices is a small cage with a unique shape. They are used to hold the graft in place to ensure a successful fusion.
In 2009, the Vu e-PODtm and Vu L-PODtm devices received clearance from the FDA to be marketed as a spinal IBD. Prior to receiving the IBD status, the devices were cleared by the FDA as spinal vertebral body replacement devices (VBR). The dual classification gives the surgeon a broader range of usages: as an adjunct to fusion in patients with degenerative disc, as well as to replace a collapsed, damaged or otherwise unstable vertebral body due to tumor or trauma. The IBD market for 2008 was estimated at $1.05 billion.
OrthoBiologics. Integra offers a comprehensive family of orthobiologic products and deploys an established network of distributors focusing on orthopedic surgeons. We market and sell a range of innovative bone graft substitutes and other related medical devices that are used to enhance the repair and regeneration of bone in spinal and trauma surgery, total joint replacements and dental applications. Integra is one of the largest companies in the world focused on advanced technology in orthobiologics. We believe that our product portfolio consists of some of the most well-established orthobiologic brands, such as Integra Mozaiktm Osteoconductive Scaffold, the Accell® family of demineralized bone matrix products, which includes Accell Evo3®, launched in 2009, and DynaGraft® II and OrthoBlast® II. Our synthetic bone product line consists of beta-tricalcium phosphate (“TCP”) grafts and putty and is manufactured with the patented TheriForm® technology, which controls the porosity and structure of the product, makes the product unique, and enhances its performance.
The United States market size for bone graft substitutes in orthopedic spinal procedures is estimated at $1.4 billion. Additional opportunities exist in orthopedic reconstructive applications.
Minimally Invasive Solutions. In September 2009, we acquired certain assets and liabilities of Innovative Spinal Technologies, Inc. (“IST”). IST designed, developed, manufactured and sold spinal implant products focused on minimally invasive surgery and motion preservation techniques. Minimally invasive fixation systems offer surgeons an opportunity to deliver pedicle screws with a small incision, potentially reducing blood loss and recovery time. This acquisition provided us with innovative products that were available soon after acquisition, as well as intellectual property that will support a pipeline of new products, particularly in the rapidly growing field of minimally invasive spine surgery.
The product lines acquired in the acquisition of IST’s assets include the Paramount® MIS/Open system for percutaneous lumbar fusion procedures, the Paramount® interbody fusion system, and the Cordanttm anterior cervical plating system, as well as the product development assets related to IST’s Axienttm product line for posterior dynamic stabilization. In addition, to the Paramount® system, we offer a posterior lumbar mini-open retractor system, the iPASSAGE. This unique retractor offers a number of blade options as well as a light source.
NEUROSCIENCES PRODUCT PORTFOLIO
Our Integra NeuroSciences sales organization sells a full line of products for neurosurgery. We have products for each step of a cranial procedure and the care of the patient after the operation. We sell equipment used in the neurosurgery operating room and neurosurgery intensive care unit (“ICU”). We also offer a wide array of implants for neurosurgery and spine surgery, including a complete set of duraplasty products and biomaterials for spine surgery.
Duraplasty Products. In the United States, over 225,000 craniotomy procedures are performed each year. Most of these surgeries breach the dura mater, which is the tough, fibrous membrane that surrounds and protects the tissue of the brain and spinal cord. The breach must be repaired, either by suturing or applying a dural graft to prevent cerebrospinal fluid leaks and facilitate wound healing. Since the introduction of the DuraGen® Dural Graft Matrix in 1999, the first onlay collagen graft for dural repair, we have become the market leader in sutureless closure of dural defects in the United States. We subsequently launched DuraGen Plus® Dural Regeneration Matrix in 2003, Suturable DuraGentm Dural Regeneration Matrix in 2005, and DuraGen XStm Dural Regeneration Matrix in 2007, demonstrating our sustained commitment to providing the neurosurgical community with innovative technology and materials for the management of dural defects. These products are alternatives to autologous tissue grafts taken from elsewhere in the patient’s body.
Tissue Ablation Equipment. Ultrasonic surgery uses high frequency acoustic pulses to selectively dissect soft tissues according to their density, leaving fibrous tissues, such as nerves and blood vessels, relatively unaffected. As a result, it facilitates the ablation of unwanted tissue adjacent or attached to vital structures. Integra’s CUSA® tissue ablation system has been a leading ultrasonic surgical aspirator for over 25 years. Our product offerings include the CUSA EXcel®, CUSA Selector® and CUSA Dissectrontm (sold internationally). In 2009, we introduced the CUSA Excel Ultrasonic Surgical Ablation System and the CUSA NXTtm Ultrasonic Tissue Ablation System. Accessories for and features of these systems include the TissueSelecttm, the CUSA Electrosurgery Module (CEMtm) and the newly introduced CUSA ShearTiptm.
Our market-leading CUSA® tissue ablation systems are used in over 100,000 procedures annually, at over 2,000 centers around the world for the removal of brain tumors, epilepsy foci, as well as gynecological and liver tumors. According to industry sources, the total United States market for ultrasonic tissue ablation products is over $60 million. Applications for ultrasonic tissue ablation technology continue to expand, both within neurosurgery and in other surgical specialties, and we are developing accessories, such as new tips and handpieces, to meet these new clinical applications. We expect the market to continue to grow.
Cerebral Spinal Fluid (“CSF”) Management Devices. CSF drainage is an important component of managing the intracranial pressure of a neuro-compromised patient or a patient undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. In 2007, over 300,000 procedures in the United States were performed using lumbar or ventricular drainage systems, representing an estimated $100 million market.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of CSF in the brain. It is most commonly treated by inserting a shunt into the ventricular system of the brain. The shunt is designed to divert the flow of CSF out of the brain to an appropriate drainage site, such as the peritoneal cavity or the heart’s right atrium, and through a pressure valve to maintain a normal level of CSF within the ventricles. Each year there are approximately 50,000 new implants and revision cases to treat hydrocephalus. Integra currently offers a diverse line of hydrocephalus management products, including a wide variety of valves and ventricular, lumbar, peritoneal and cardiac catheters.
Cranial Stabilization Equipment. Most neurosurgery procedures require that the head is held rigidly during the operation. The MAYFIELD® line of cranial stabilization equipment fixes the head in an orientation determined by the surgeon; the device contacts the head via skull pins that are held in a frame that is anchored to the operating table and can be adjusted in multiple planes of movement.
The MAYFIELD® system is used worldwide in over 200,000 brain procedures annually. Treatments using MAYFIELD® include head trauma injuries, pediatric disorders such as hydrocephalus, biopsies, cancer removal, and treatments for cerebrovascular disorders such as aneurysms, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease or epilepsy. In 2009, we launched the MAYFIELD® Infinity XR2 Radiolucent Cranial Stabilization System.
Intracranial Monitoring Equipment. The neurosurgical intensive care unit monitors a patient’s post-operative condition, following most neurosurgical procedures involving craniotomy. We offer the leading products for monitoring intracranial pressure (the Camino® ICP monitor) and metabolic activity (LICOX® brain tissue monitoring system) and equipment for the drainage of excess CSF (the AccuDrain® Extermal Ventricular Drainage Systems).
Our Camino® and LICOX® monitoring systems are also used in the treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (“TBI”). TBI is a major public health problem and costs the United States an estimated $56 billion a year. More than five million Americans alive today have had a TBI, resulting in a permanent need for help in performing daily activities, and TBI survivors are often left with significant cognitive, behavioral, and communicative disabilities. Research has shown that not all brain damage occurs at the moment of impact, but frequently evolves over the ensuing hours and days after the initial injury. The secondary damage may be controlled, in part, by monitoring and managing intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygen.
MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS PRODUCT PORTFOLIO
We are one of the leading surgical instrument companies in the United States, providing more than 60,000 instrument patterns and surgical products to hospitals, surgery centers, and dental, podiatry, veterinary and physician offices.
Integra Surgical is a leading supplier of innovative, high-quality operating room instrumentation and surgical lighting. The Jarit® instrument line offers a comprehensive selection of reusable surgical instruments that provides a complete solution for laparoscopic, general, cardiovascular, neuro, gynecological, and orthopedic surgical specialties. Luxtec® products lead the surgical illumination market. These products include market leading Xenon illumination systems, digital video recording systems, fiber optic cables and surgical loupes. Innovative market-leading Omni-Tract® Surgical table retractor systems offer surgeons and operating rooms the benefits of light weight, fewer parts, and fast, easy set up.
Miltex, Inc. has established itself as one of the largest and most respected suppliers of hand-held instruments in the alternate site market, which includes surgical, dental, podiatry and animal health markets. Our extensive product portfolio of over 30,000 line items, in combination with our strong distributor partnerships, allows us to reach a broad spectrum of providers, both domestically as well as internationally.
Miltex’s extensive product portfolio of hand-held surgical instrumentation encompasses all of the clinical specialties that are significant within the non-acute setting including female patient care, the aesthetics marketplace, ENT, ophthalmology and all other venues that provide surgical care outside of the hospital. We also are a major player in veterinary specialties, such as dentistry and orthopedics, as well in the emerging life sciences sector.
Miltex is recognized as a premium manufacturer of dental instruments related to hygiene, oral surgery, periodontal and endodontic instrumentation. The Miltex dental portfolio contains the well recognized premium brand names, Miltex, Thompson, Moyco and Union Broach. We offer the dental market the largest array of choices in extraction forceps, market leadership in sterilization cassettes and unique intra-oral lighting technologies. Miltex has successfully incorporated one of Integra’s regenerative collagen materials into its oral surgery and periodontal offerings and continues to work in consort to bring additional opportunities to the industry.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
We spent $44.3 million, $60.5 million and $30.7 million in 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively, on research and development activities. The 2009 amount includes $0.3 million of in-process research and development charges recorded in connection with the IST acquisition. The 2008 amount includes $25.2 million of in-process research and development charges recorded in connection with the acquisition of Theken Spine, LLC, Theken Disc, LLC and Therics, LLC (collectively “Integra Spine”). The 2007 amount includes $4.6 million in-process research and development charges recorded in connection with the IsoTis acquisition. Increases in research and development expenditures will accelerate the development of new devices for neurosurgery, extremity reconstruction and orthobiologics.
Our research and development activities focus on identifying and evaluating unmet surgical needs and product improvement opportunities to drive the development of innovative solutions and products. We apply our technological and developmental core competencies to develop regenerative products for neurosurgical, orthopedic and spinal applications, neuro-monitoring and CSF management, cranial stabilization and closure, tissue ablation, surgical instruments and spine, soft tissue, extremity small bone, and joint fixation. Our activities include both internal product development initiatives and the acquisition of proprietary rights to strategic technological platforms.
Regenerative Products. Because implants represent a fast-growing, high-margin market segment for us, a large portion of our research and development expenditure is allocated to the development of these products. Our regenerative product development portfolio focuses on applying our expertise in biomaterials and collagen matrices to support the development of innovative products targeted at neurosurgical, orthopedic and spinal surgery applications, as well as dermal regeneration, nerve repair, and wound dressing applications. Our focus on technological advancement, product segmentation and differentiation activities will continue to drive our activities in each of these areas.
Neurosurgery. We have prioritized our portfolio to align with the largest, fastest growing and most profitable segments of the neurosurgical markets we serve. Our 2010 research and product development efforts are focused on extending our leadership positions in dural repair, and developing the next tissue ablation system, a new critical care neuromonitoring system and an advanced shunt for the management of hydrocephalus. We serve many segments of the neurosurgical market place and have other projects in place to enhance our existing brain mapping, tissue ablation and stereotactic devices.
Extremity Reconstruction. We continue to build and expand the capabilities of our product development team, focusing on the development of fixation devices for upper and lower extremity reconstruction, skin, nerve and soft tissue products, and have structured a robust product development program that will advance our product offerings. This program includes the development of devices for both the upper and lower extremities. In 2009, we launched five significant extremities products: three for use in lower extremity procedures, one for soft tissue reinforcement, and one new skin product offering.
Spine. Our 2008 acquisition of Integra Spine expanded our product development engine with a strong engineering team, prototyping and mechanical testing capabilities and a portfolio of active spine implant product developments. We continued our growth strategy in 2009 with the acquisition of most of the assets of IST, which gave us an entrée into the rapidly growing, minimally invasive spine market. In 2009, Integra Spine introduced five products, including the Paramount® minimally invasive spine system, a series of interbody spinal implants made of PEEK-Optima® polymers from Invibio Limited, two additions to the Coraltm Spinal System and the Atolltm Occipital-Cervical-Thoracic (OCT) System, a posterior cervical spinal fixation system. With the addition of the Atolltm OCT System, we now offer spinal fusion solutions throughout the entire spine, from occiput to sacrum.
OrthoBiologics. We have built a strong orthobiologic product development capability that leverages our Accell® family of demineralized bone matrix product lines and our Integra Mozaiktm Osteoconductive Scaffold, resorbable bone void filler product line. We continue to develop line extensions based on these foundation technologies that further complete our offerings. In 2009, we expanded our Accell Evo3® product line, offering a smaller size option for surgeons, which is particularly useful in procedures where smaller amounts of demineralized bone matrix are required. We integrated the Therics research and development program, which was acquired as part of the 2008 Integra Spine acquisition, into the overall orthobiologics research and development program. We will look to further develop products based on this technology to create synthetic materials with unique architecture and chemistry.