The Company. Kellogg Company, founded in 1906 and incorporated in Delaware in 1922, and its subsidiaries are engaged in the manufacture and marketing of ready-to-eat cereal and convenience foods.
The address of the principal business office of Kellogg Company is One Kellogg Square, P.O. Box 3599, Battle Creek, Michigan 49016-3599. Unless otherwise specified or indicated by the context, “Kellogg,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Kellogg Company, its divisions and subsidiaries.
Principal Products. Our principal products are ready-to-eat cereals and convenience foods, such as cookies, crackers, toaster pastries, cereal bars, fruit snacks, frozen waffles and veggie foods. These products were, as of February 26, 2010, manufactured by us in 18 countries and marketed in more than 180 countries. Our cereal products are generally marketed under the Kellogg’s name and are sold principally to the grocery trade through direct sales forces for resale to consumers. We use broker and distribution arrangements for certain products. We also generally use these, or similar arrangements, in less-developed market areas or in those market areas outside of our focus.
We also market cookies, crackers, and other convenience foods, under brands such as Kellogg’s, Keebler, Cheez-It, Murray, Austin and Famous Amos, to supermarkets in the United States through a direct store-door (DSD) delivery system, although other distribution methods are also used.
Additional information pertaining to the relative sales of our products for the years 2007 through 2009 is located in Note 17 within Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which are included herein under Part II, Item 8.
Raw Materials. Agricultural commodities are the principal raw materials used in our products. Cartonboard, corrugated, and plastic are the principal packaging materials used by us. World supplies and prices of such commodities (which include such packaging materials) are constantly monitored, as are government trade policies. The cost of such commodities may fluctuate widely due to government policy and regulation, weather conditions, or other unforeseen circumstances. Continuous efforts are made to maintain and improve the quality and supply of such commodities for purposes of our short-term and long-term requirements.
The principal ingredients in the products produced by us in the United States include corn grits, wheat and wheat derivatives, oats, rice, cocoa and chocolate, soybeans and soybean derivatives, various fruits, sweeteners, flour, vegetable oils, dairy products, eggs, and other filling ingredients, which are obtained from various sources. Most of these commodities are purchased principally from sources in the United States.
We enter into long-term contracts for the commodities described in this section and purchase these items on the open market, depending on our view of possible price fluctuations, supply levels, and our relative negotiating power. While the cost of some of these commodities has, and may continue to, increase over time, we believe that we will be able to purchase an adequate supply of these items as needed. As further discussed herein under Part II, Item 7A, we also use commodity futures and options to hedge some of our costs.
Raw materials and packaging needed for internationally based operations are available in adequate supply and are sometimes imported from countries other than those where used in manufacturing.
Natural gas and propane are the primary sources of energy used to power processing ovens at major domestic and international facilities, although certain locations may use oil or propane on a back-up or alternative basis. In addition, considerable amounts of diesel fuel are used in connection with the distribution of our products. As further discussed herein under Part II, Item 7A, we use over-the-counter commodity price swaps to hedge some of our natural gas costs.
Trademarks and Technology. Generally, our products are marketed under trademarks we own. Our principal trademarks are our housemarks, brand names, slogans, and designs related to cereals and convenience foods manufactured and marketed by us, and we also grant licenses to third parties to use these marks on various goods. These trademarks include Kellogg’s for cereals, convenience foods and our other products, and the brand names of certain ready-to-eat cereals, including All-Bran, Apple Jacks, Bran Buds, Complete Bran Flakes, Complete Wheat
Flakes, Cocoa Krispies, Cinnamon Crunch Crispix, Corn Pops, Cruncheroos, Kellogg’s Corn Flakes, Cracklin’ Oat Bran, Crispix, Froot Loops, Kellogg’s
Frosted Flakes, Frosted Mini-Wheats, Frosted Krispies, Just Right, Kellogg’s Low Fat Granola, Mueslix, Pops, Product 19, Kellogg’s Raisin Bran, Rice Krispies, Raisin Bran Crunch, Smacks/Honey Smacks, Smart Start, Special K and Special K Red Berries in the United States and elsewhere; Zucaritas, Choco Zucaritas, Crusli, Sucrilhos, Sucrilhos Chocolate, Sucrilhos Banana, Vector, Musli, NutriDia, and Choco Krispis for cereals in Latin America; Vive and Vector in Canada; Choco Pops, Chocos, Crunch Red Nut, Frosties, Muslix, Fruit’n’ Fibre, Kellogg’s Crunchy Nut Corn Flakes, Honey Loops, Kellogg’s Extra, Sustain, Muslix, Country Store, Ricicles, Smacks, Start, Pops, Optima and Tresor for cereals in Europe; and Cerola, Sultana Bran, Chex, Frosties, Goldies, Rice Bubbles, Nutri-Grain, Kellogg’s Iron Man Food, and BeBig for cereals in Asia and Australia. Additional Company trademarks are the names of certain combinations of ready-to-eat Kellogg’s cereals, including Fun Pak, Jumbo, and Variety.
Other Company brand names include Kellogg’s Corn Flake Crumbs; Croutettes for herb season stuffing mix; All-Bran, Choco Krispis, Froot Loops, NutriDia, Kuadri-Krispis, Zucaritas, Special K, and Crusli for cereal bars, Keloketas for cookies, Komplete for biscuits; and Kaos for snacks in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America; Pop-Tarts Pastry Swirls for toaster danish; Pop-Tarts and Pop-Tarts Snak-Stix for toaster pastries; Eggo, Special K, Froot Loops and Nutri-Grain for frozen waffles and pancakes; Rice Krispies Treats for baked snacks and convenience foods; Special K and Special K2O flavored water and flavored protein water mixes; Nutri-Grain cereal bars, Nutri-Grain yogurt bars, All-Bran bars and crackers, for convenience foods in the United States and elsewhere; K-Time, Rice Bubbles, Day Dawn, Be Natural, Sunibrite and LCMs for convenience foods in Asia and Australia; Nutri-Grain Squares, Nutri-Grain Elevenses, and Rice Krispies Squares for convenience foods in Europe; Fruit Winders for fruit snacks in the United Kingdom; Kashi and GoLean for certain cereals, nutrition bars, and mixes; TLC for granola and cereal bars, crackers and cookies; Special K and Vector for meal replacement products; Bear Naked for granola cereal, bars and trail mix and Morningstar Farms, Loma Linda, Natural Touch, Gardenburger and Worthington for certain meat and egg alternatives.
We also market convenience foods under trademarks and tradenames which include Keebler, Cheez-It, E. L. Fudge, Murray, Famous Amos, Austin, Ready Crust, Chips Deluxe, Club, Kellogg’s FiberPlus, Fudge Shoppe, Hi-Ho, Sunshine, Krispy, Mother’s, Munch’Ems, Right Bites, Sandies, Soft Batch, Stretch Island, Toasteds, Town House, Vienna Fingers, Wheatables, and Zesta. One of our subsidiaries is also the exclusive licensee of the Carr’s cracker and cookie line in the United States.
Our trademarks also include logos and depictions of certain animated characters in conjunction with our products, including Snap!Crackle!Pop! for Cocoa Krispies and Rice Krispies cereals and Rice Krispies Treats convenience foods; Tony the Tiger for Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes, Zucaritas, Sucrilhos and Frosties cereals and convenience foods; Ernie Keebler for cookies, convenience foods and other products; the Hollow Tree logo for certain convenience foods; Toucan Sam for Froot Loops; Dig ‘Em for Smacks; Sunny for Kellogg’s Raisin Bran, Coco the Monkey for Coco Pops; Cornelius for Kellogg’s Corn Flakes; Melvin the Elephant for certain cereal and convenience foods; Chocos the Bear, Kobi the Bear and Sammy the Seal for certain cereal products.
The slogans The Best To You Each Morning, The Original & Best, They’re Gr-r-reat!, The Difference is K, One Bowl Stronger, Supercharged, Earn Your Stripes and Gotta Have My Pops, used in connection with our ready-to-eat cereals, along with L’ Eggo my Eggo, used in connection with our frozen waffles and pancakes, Elfin Magic, Childhood Is Calling, The Cookies in the Passionate Purple Package and Uncommonly Good used in connection with convenience food products, Seven Whole Grains on a Mission used in connection with Kashi all-natural foods and See Veggies Differently used in connection with meat and egg alternatives are also important Kellogg trademarks.
The trademarks listed above, among others, when taken as a whole, are important to our business. Certain individual trademarks are also important to our business. Depending on the jurisdiction, trademarks are generally valid as long as they are in use and/or their registrations are properly maintained and they have not been found to have become generic. Registrations of trademarks can also generally be renewed indefinitely as long as the trademarks are in use.
We consider that, taken as a whole, the rights under our various patents, which expire from time to time, are a valuable asset, but we do not believe that our businesses are materially dependent on any single patent or group of related patents. Our activities under licenses or other franchises or concessions which we hold are similarly a valuable asset, but are not believed to be material.
Seasonality. Demand for our products has generally been approximately level throughout the year, although some of our convenience foods have a bias for stronger demand in the second half of the year due to events and holidays. We also custom-bake cookies for the Girl Scouts of the U.S.A., which are principally sold in the first quarter of the year.
Working Capital. Although terms vary around the world and by business types, in the United States we generally have required payment for goods sold eleven or sixteen days subsequent to the date of invoice as 2% 10/net 11 or 1% 15/net 16. Receipts from goods sold, supplemented as required by borrowings, provide for our payment of dividends, repurchases of our common stock, capital expansion, and for other operating expenses and working capital needs.
Customers. Our largest customer, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates, accounted for approximately 21% of consolidated net sales during 2009, comprised principally of sales within the United States. At January 2, 2010, approximately 17% of our consolidated receivables balance and 26% of our U.S. receivables balance was comprised of amounts owed by Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates. No other customer accounted for greater than 10% of net sales in 2009. During 2009, our top five customers, collectively, including Wal-Mart, accounted for approximately 34% of our consolidated net sales and approximately 44% of U.S. net sales. There has been significant worldwide consolidation in the grocery industry in recent years and we believe that this trend is likely to continue. Although the loss of any large customer for an extended length of time could negatively impact our sales and profits, we do not anticipate that this will occur to a significant extent due to the consumer demand for our products and our relationships with our customers. Our products have been generally sold through our own sales forces and through broker and distributor arrangements, and have been generally resold to consumers in retail stores, restaurants, and other food service establishments.
Employees. At January 2, 2010, we had approximately 30,900 employees.