Limelight Networks, Inc. (“Limelight”) is a provider of high-performance content delivery network services. We deliver content for traditional and emerging media companies, or content providers, including businesses operating in the television, music, radio, newspaper, magazine, movie, videogame, software and social media industries as well as enterprises and government entities doing business online. Using Limelight’s content delivery network, or CDN, content providers are able to provide their end-users with a high-quality media experience for rich media content including video, music, games, software and social media. As consumer demands for media content over the Internet have increased, and as enabling technologies such as broadband access to the Internet have proliferated, consumption of rich media content has become increasingly important to Internet end-users and therefore to the content providers that serve them. We developed our services and architected our network specifically to meet the unique demands content providers face in delivering rich media content to large audiences of demanding Internet end-users. Our comprehensive solution delivers content providers a high-quality, highly scalable, highly reliable offering. We primarily derive revenue from the sale of services to customers executing contracts with terms of one year or longer, which we refer to as recurring revenue contracts or long-term contracts. These contracts generally commit the customer to a minimum monthly level of usage with additional charges applicable for actual usage above the monthly minimum. We believe that having a consistent and predictable base level of revenue is important to our financial success. Accordingly, to be successful, we must maintain the majority of our base of recurring revenue contracts and build on that base by adding new customers and increasing the number of services and amount of capacity our existing customers purchase. At the same time, we must ensure that our expenses do not increase faster than, or at the same rate as, our revenues. Accomplishing these goals requires that we compete effectively in the marketplace on the basis of scale, service quality, platform capability, and price.
We were formed as an Arizona limited liability company, Limelight Networks, LLC, in June 2001 and converted into a Delaware corporation, Limelight Networks, Inc., in August 2003. Our principal executive offices are located at 2220 W. 14th Street, Tempe, Arizona 85281 and 6119 La Granada, Rancho Santa Fe, CA 92067, and our main telephone number is (602) 850-5000. Our website address is www.limelightnetworks.com. We began development of our infrastructure in 2001 and began generating meaningful revenue in 2002. As of December 31, 2008, we had in excess of 1,330 active customers and had a presence in 49 countries throughout the world.
In 2008, we provided content delivery services for some of the largest live and on-demand events that have ever been transmitted over the Internet, including Oprah Winfrey’s 10-part interactive book club series in February and March; the US Open golf tournament; the online debut of Disney’s Camp Rock movie; Microsoft and NBC’s online coverage of the Beijing Olympic Summer Games; and the Presidential Election Results. In October, we hosted our second-annual Digital Media Innovation Forum, a two-day industry event focused on bringing together the companies that make up the content delivery ecosystem.
During the year we established new relationships with more than 600 companies, including BT, Blue Cross, CheckPoint, Citadel, CNET Networks, Harpo Productions, Hobart Corporation, Metropole Television Group, Nissan Motors of Japan, Nintendo of Japan, Sonic, Sun Microsystems, Textron, and Unisys, amongst others.
We announced the continued expansion of our network capacity to over two-terabits per second, marking the beginning of the era of Internet content delivery to ‘broadcast quantity’ audiences. We also announced support for Adobe Flash Media Server version 3.0, as well as Microsoft Silverlight 2.0. We also announced new additions to our executive leadership team and our Board of Directors.
We continued to execute on our plan of operational readiness and growth, as we expanded our internal management systems.
We are currently party to two separate lawsuits alleging aspects of our CDN infringe upon third-party patent rights. In one matter, Akamai Technologies, Inc. v. Limelight Networks, Inc., a jury returned a verdict in February 2008 against us finding we infringed four claims of one patent at issue in that lawsuit, and awarded damages of approximately $45.5 million plus pre-judgment interest estimated to be $2.6 million. An additional provision of approximately $17.5 million for potential additional infringement damages and interest was recorded during the year ended December 31, 2008. On July 1, 2008, the Court denied our Motions for Judgment as a Matter of Law, Obviousness, and a New Trial. The Court also denied Akamai’s Motion for Permanent Injunction as premature and its Motions for Summary Judgment regarding our equitable defenses. In November, 2008, a bench trial was conducted regarding our equitable defenses. The Court’s rulings regarding our equitable defenses and also a renewed motion for judgment as a matter of law are pending, and a final judgment has not yet been entered. We continue to believe that the claims of infringement asserted against us by Akamai and its co-plaintiff, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT in the present litigation are without merit and that the jury’s verdict is incorrect, and we will continue to defend the case vigorously. Regardless of the outcome on the pending issues, it is likely that appeals by Akamai, us or both will follow.
In December 2007, Level 3 Communications, LLC (Level 3) filed a lawsuit against us in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia alleging we infringe three patents owned by it. On January 23, 2009, in Federal Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, a jury returned a favorable verdict finding that we did not infringe the Level 3 patents.
In August 2007, we, certain of our officers and directors, and the firms that served as the lead underwriters in our initial public offering were named as defendants in several purported class action lawsuits. These lawsuits have been consolidated into a single lawsuit in U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona. On March 17, 2008, we and the individual defendants moved to dismiss all of the plaintiffs’ claims, and a hearing was held on this motion on June 16, 2008. On August 8, 2008, the court granted the motion to dismiss, dismissing plaintiffs’ claims under Section 12 with prejudice and granting leave to amend the claims under Sections 11 and 15. Plaintiffs chose not to amend the claims under Sections 11 and 15, and on August 29, 2008 the court entered judgment in favor of us. On September 5, 2008 Plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal, and appellate briefs were filed by both parties in January and February 2009. We believe that we and the individual defendants have meritorious defenses to the claims made in the complaint and we intend to contest the lawsuit vigorously. This lawsuit and other ongoing legal proceedings are described under “Legal Proceedings” in Part 1, Item 3 of this annual report on Form 10-K.
We are registered as a reporting company under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the Exchange Act. Accordingly, we file or furnish with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the Commission, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to such reports as required by the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission. We refer to these reports as Periodic Reports. The public may read and copy any Periodic Reports or other materials we file with the Commission at the Commission’s Public Reference Room at 450 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room is available by calling 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the Commission maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, such as Limelight Networks Inc., that file electronically with the Commission. The address of this website is http://www.sec.gov.
Our Internet website address is www.limelightnetworks.com. We make available, free of charge, on or through our Internet website our Periodic Reports and amendments to those Periodic Reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with the Commission. We are not, however, including the information contained on our website, or information that may be accessed through links on our website, as part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this annual report on Form 10-K.
Consumption and Distribution of Content Expanding
Multiple forces have created, and continue to drive, a substantial unmet need to rapidly and efficiently deliver broadcast-quality rich media and web applications over the Internet. These forces include the following:
Proliferation of broadband Internet connections. According to a 2009 Frost and Sullivan Report (Worldwide Video Content Delivery Networks Market), over 600 million consumers will have high-speed wired broadband access in 2009, with that number expected to increase to over 1 billion wired broadband connections by 2012. This means that more consumers will have access to even faster Internet connections than ever before. This proliferation of broadband Internet connections and increased broadband speeds provides an increasing number of users with the capability to access rich media content efficiently.
Consumption of media via Internet-connected devices is rivaling consumption via other media channels. The proliferation of broadband Internet has fundamentally changed the way that consumers access and interact with media content. TNS Research found in a survey of consumers living in 16 countries that people spent approximately 30% of their leisure time online (Digital World, Digital Life, November 2008), and that over 50% of the global online audience now watches online video. This use of the web only increases in younger generations; a February 2009 Starz Entertainment survey found that 78% of 12-to-17-year-olds watch online video every week. Finally, comScore reported that in December 2008, U.S. Internet users viewed a record 14.3 billion online videos during the month.
Consumers increasingly desire on-demand access to a broad range of personalized content. Through technologies like Internet search, personal digital video recorders, video-on-demand and social media platforms, consumers are increasingly accustomed to immediate, on-demand access to content and information, including videos, music and photos provided by media outlets, retailers, or even by users themselves. For example, according to eMarketer the number of individuals who watched retail videos in order to make a purchase decision grew by 40% in 2008 (Video Usage in E-commerce, January 2009).
Proliferation of Internet-connected devices. The proliferation of devices that are capable of connecting to the Internet, such as MP3 players, mobile phones, Blu-ray players, netbooks , and videogame consoles, has given users even more control and flexibility over how and where they access and use media content from the Internet.
Growth of usage of outsourced infrastructure. Enterprises are looking to decrease infrastructure expenditures by moving to a “cloud-based” model where application delivery and storage are available on-demand and paid for on an as-needed basis. Gartner reports that 20% of enterprises with fewer than 10,000 employees consider outsourced infrastructure their top priority in 2009 (IT Infrastructure Utility, Worldwide, July 2008).
Content providers and more recently traditional enterprise companies have recognized this evolving shift in consumer behavior and the consumption of online content. Television, music, radio, newspaper, magazine, movie, videogame, software and other traditional and emerging media companies all have or are developing large libraries of rich media and video content. The broad reach provided by the Internet allows these companies to distribute their content through content aggregators or directly to consumers. The Internet also enables content providers to offer their entire content libraries to consumers. As a result, content providers are able to monetize a much larger portion of their media content libraries than has been possible under offline, non-Internet modes of distribution. Additionally, enterprises, e-commerce businesses, and governmental agencies are creating rich-media web applications for customer-relationship services such as product information, training and support. They are also leveraging the always-available attributes of the Internet to make critical business applications, processes, and data instantly and securely available to their employees.
Alternatives for Delivering Content over the Internet
Companies looking to deliver content to users via the Internet have two primary alternatives: deliver content using basic Internet connectivity, in some cases with significant investment in additional infrastructure, or utilize a CDN.
Content Delivery via Basic Internet Connectivity
Basic Internet connectivity is capable of delivering media content to users, but is ill-suited for delivering the large media files and broadcast-quality media that are commonplace today. The Internet is a complex network of networks that was designed principally to connect every Internet network point to every other Internet network point via multiple, redundant paths. To reach a given user, content from a provider’s website must normally traverse multiple networks. These networks include those of the website’s Internet service provider, or ISP, one or more Internet backbone carriers — each of which provides a network of high-speed communication lines between major interconnection points — and the user’s ISP. At any point along this path, data packets associated with the website’s content can be lost or delayed, impeding the transfer of data to the user. Internet protocols are designed to reliably transport data packets, but are not designed to ensure end-to-end performance. These protocols are effective for delivery of many types of traditional content, but are often ineffective for delivery of rich media content. When data packets are lost or delayed during the delivery of rich media content, the result is noticeable to users because playback is interrupted. This interruption causes songs to skip, videos to freeze and downloads to be slower than acceptable for demanding consumers. This lack of performance and its dramatic effect on user experience make the delivery of rich media content via the basic Internet extremely challenging.
In response, some content providers have chosen to invest significant capital to build the infrastructure of servers, storage and networks necessary to bypass, to the extent possible, the public Internet “cloud”. This substantial capital outlay and the development of the expertise and other technical resources required to manage such a complex infrastructure can be time-consuming and prohibitively expensive for all but the largest of companies.
Content Delivery via Content Delivery Networks
A CDN offloads the delivery of content from a media provider’s central website infrastructure to the CDN’s service delivery infrastructure. In general, the infrastructure of a CDN is composed of hundreds or thousands of servers distributed at various points around the Internet, linked together by software that manages the storage and delivery of media content objects to end-users. Deploying content objects in numerous, distributed locations can reduce the network distance between users and the media content they seek, reducing the potential for
Table of Contents
performance-inhibiting network congestion. The architecture of early CDNs reflected the importance and prevalence, at the time, of web page objects such as photos and graphics. Early CDNs typically deployed small server clusters in a large number of locations, relied on the public Internet to connect the clusters, and stored only the most popular content objects in their local caches, which are the repositories where frequently accessed data are stored for rapid access. Because each server cluster was small, with few servers available for the storage and delivery of content, and with rarely more than a single network connection, some early CDNs employed optimization algorithms in an effort to effectively manage and allocate these relatively scarce resources.
When a requested content object is unavailable on the server cluster, a cache miss, which is a failed attempt to acquire a requested content object in a local cache, occurs. To handle a cache miss, early CDNs would access the missing object over the Internet from the content provider’s servers. A cache miss, and the time required to obtain the missing object over the Internet, degrades the end-user’s experience and increases the computing resource cost of servicing the end-user’s request. As the consumption of large libraries of rich media has grown, the requirement to cache a sufficient number of media objects to guarantee a high-quality end-user experience at an efficient price has grown with it.
The New Requirements for Delivering Content
We believe the unique characteristics of content delivery and the rapid growth of online content consumption have created a new set of technical, management and economic requirements for businesses seeking to deliver rich media content. These requirements include the following:
Delivering a consistent high-quality media experience. User experience is critical for content providers because consumers increasingly expect a high-quality experience, will not tolerate interruptions or inconsistency in the delivery of content, and may never return to a particular media provider if that provider is unable to meet their expectations. A media stream, for example, should begin immediately and play continuously without interruption every time a customer accesses that stream.
Delivering expansive libraries of content. Consumers, particularly those who are accustomed to broadband-enabled Internet services such as high-quality television and radio, increasingly demand the ability to consume any form of media content online. To meet this demand, traditional media companies are moving their enormous libraries of content, such as television shows and movies, online. At the same time, emerging content businesses, such as user-generated content companies, are creating expansive libraries of rich media. Users expect a consistent media experience across every title in these large libraries, for each title regardless of its popularity, each time it is viewed.
Ability to scale content delivery capacity to handle rapidly accelerating demand and diversity of audience interest. Content providers also need to scale delivery of their content smoothly as the size of their audience increases. When a large number of users simultaneously access a particular website, the content provider must be able to meet that surge in demand without making users wait. Rapidly accelerating demand can be related to a single event, such as a major news or sporting event, or can be spread across an entire library of content, such as when a social media website surges in popularity.
Reliability. Throughout the path data must traverse to reach a user, problems with the underlying infrastructure supporting the Internet can occur. For instance, servers can crash, or network connections can fail. Avoiding these problems is important to content providers because network, datacenter, or service provider outages can mean frustrated users, lost audiences and missed revenue opportunities.
Flexibility and manageability. Content providers are making significant investments in preparing their media libraries for delivery over the Internet. Once content is ready for Internet distribution, content providers must be able to support a wide range of formats, begin to distribute their content quickly, and monitor their delivery activities.
Managing delivery costs. Managing the cost of content delivery is important for content providers so that they can maximize profits. As a result, the combination of major capital outlays and operating expenditures required to build and maintain large server clusters, peak period capacity, extensive Internet backbone networks and multiple connections to global broadband access networks is simply not practical for most companies. As users increasingly demand access to large files and media streams, the infrastructure costs associated with providing this content rise accordingly.
The capital, expertise, and other managerial effort necessary to meet these requirements can be challenging. As demand for the delivery of rich media content increases, these challenges will become increasingly difficult to meet. We believe, therefore, that there is a significant opportunity for outsourced Internet content delivery services.
The Limelight Networks Solution for Content Delivery
We are a provider of high-performance content delivery network services. We deliver content for traditional and emerging media companies, or content providers, including businesses operating in the television, music, radio, newspaper, magazine, movie, videogame and software industries; online businesses operating e-commerce storefronts; and corporate or enterprise businesses that operate a web site. We designed our delivery solution to handle the demanding requirements of delivering rich media content over the Internet. Our solution enables content providers and aggregators to provide their end-users with high-quality experiences across multiple media types, library sizes, or audience sizes, without expending the capital and developing the expertise needed to build out and manage their own networks.
In designing and building our content delivery network, we built and deployed a globally-distributed network of thousands of servers specially configured for the delivery of rich media content with the following design advantages:
Densely Configured, High-Capacity Architecture. Our network infrastructure consists of dense clusters of specially configured servers organized into large, multi-tiered, logical CDN locations. The extensive storage capacity of these logical CDN locations leads to fewer misses to our network of servers than we believe would occur in an early CDN architecture and provides maximum scalability and responsiveness to surges in end-user demand.
Many Connections to Other Networks. Our logical CDN locations are directly connected to hundreds of user access networks, which are computer networks connected to end-users. In addition, for dedicated connectivity between our logical CDN locations, we operate our own private optical backbone and metro area networks. Lastly, our infrastructure has multiple connections to the Internet. In combination, these connections enable us to frequently bypass the often-congested public Internet, improving the speed of content delivery.
Intelligent Software to Manage the Network. We have developed proprietary software that manages our content delivery system. This software intelligently manages the delivery of content objects, storage and retrieval of customer content libraries, activity logging and information reporting.
Flexibility to Meet Varying Customer Demands. We support both download and streaming deliveries, and do so across what we believe is one of the broadest range of formats in our industry, including Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, Move Networks, MP3 audio, QuickTime, RealNetworks RealPlayer and Windows Media.
All of the elements of our network work seamlessly together. Content providers either upload content directly to us or store it on their own web servers. Upon request from an end-user, we distribute that content to one or more massive storage server clusters which feed hundreds of specially configured servers at each content delivery location around the world. The content is then delivered directly to end-users through our relationships with over 900 broadband Internet service providers, or over the public Internet if appropriate. Our customers compensate us for this service by paying us on a per-gigabyte basis, or on a variable basis based on peak delivery rate for a fixed period of time, as our services are used.
Key Benefits of the Limelight Networks Solution
Our content delivery network architecture and service offering were designed and built to meet the demands of rich media content delivery. We are able to deliver the following customer benefits:
High Quality User Experience
We enable content providers to bypass much of the congestion typically experienced in the busy public Internet and deliver rich media content directly to their audiences. This allows our customers to deliver engaging and reliable experiences to end-users around the world. We accomplish this by delivering content from globally distributed servers that are directly connected to over 900 broadband access networks — the networks that users connect with to reach the Internet. Tying it all together is a high-speed, dedicated global optical network that interconnects our thousands of servers and provides just-in-time delivery of any part of a customer’s library.
High Scalability Across the Four Dimensions of Delivery
At the technology level, our success is predicated on a high-speed, highly scalable global network that has been designed to address four dimensions of delivery — object size, library size, audience size and object popularity. For each dimension, our supporting technology takes an innovative approach:
Object size. Our network was designed with extensive storage capacity and substantial computing power to handle the demands of delivering massive media files to users around the world.
Library size. Our regional content delivery centers use multi-tiered cache architecture to store large content libraries for immediate access.
Audience size. The current global delivery capability of our network exceeds 2 terabits per second, enabling us to respond instantly to surges in end-user demand from large global audiences.
Object popularity. Our CDN ensures that every object in a content library — whether the most popular title or the least popular — will be consistently available to users, on demand.
Our distributed CDN architecture, managed by our proprietary software, seamlessly and automatically responds in real time to network and datacenter outages and disruptions. All of our content delivery network locations are interconnected via our global optical network and also connected to multiple Internet backbone and broadband Internet service provider networks. Additionally, each location has multiple redundant servers, enabling us to continue serving content even if a network connection or server fails. Automatic failover and recovery not only provide uninterrupted customer service but also simplify network maintenance and upgrades.
Enabled by a broad range of innovative products and services, customers can reach their audiences in two ways: via streaming delivery, which allows the simultaneous delivery and viewing of rich media such as live events and on-demand content; and via object delivery, for distributing such content as high-quality video and music, games, social media and software downloads. We can also create customized, private CDNs to meet the specific needs of highly customized content delivery requirements, including enabling Software as a Service (SaaS) businesses, public sector entities and corporate organizations for which security and privacy are paramount. We support a broad variety of formats including Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, MP3 audio, QuickTime, RealNetworks RealPlayer and Windows Media. In addition, our value-added services include a web-based customer portal that provides management information reports and a download manager that simplifies the downloading process for the end user. We can begin delivery services for a new customer within days of a customer placing an order.
Table of Contents
Low Capital Investment
Our customers can take advantage of our robust network to handle their rich media content delivery needs without having to invest in expensive equipment, software licenses, and operational expertise or support and maintenance costs. Customers benefit from the lower cost associated with the delivery of content using our infrastructure and the expertise we have acquired from serving our customers. Our customers pay for the traffic we deliver for them, and they have the flexibility to purchase additional delivery capacity at any time to support their changing business needs.
Our services are purpose-built for the delivery of digital media to large, global audiences. Our primary services are the following:
LimelightDELIVER — HTTP distribution of large and small digital objects to global audiences;
LimelightSTREAM — Fast, reliable and scalable live and on-demand streaming delivery;
LimelightPS — Professional services to help customers determine content distribution strategies, network architecture design, content storage infrastructure, live event execution, and best practices spanning the design, deployment and management of on-line web infrastructure.
LimelightSUPPORT — Expert, on-demand engineering resources that keep customers on-line initiatives a top priority
A customer typically chooses LimelightDELIVER for digital media files, such as purchased movies and games, or standard http objects, such as gifs and jpegs, which are destined to reside, either permanently or for some period of time, on a user’s computer or other device. A customer typically chooses LimelightSTREAM for live events, Internet radio services, and other content that is not intended to reside on the user’s device for even a short period of time. A customer typically chooses LimelightCUSTOM if it has one or more unique requirements that are not commonly supported by CDNs, such as the need to execute proprietary software from the edge servers of the CDN. In many cases, a customer will choose more than one of these services, utilizing different services for different content types or services.
LimelightDELIVER and LimelightSTREAM
LimelightDELIVER provides HTTP/web distribution of digital media files such as video, music, games, software and social media.
LimelightSTREAM provides on-demand and/or live streaming for all major formats including Adobe Flash, MP3 audio, QuickTime, RealNetworks RealPlayer and Windows Media. When media files are streamed to an end-user, the files are not stored on the user’s computer, but rather are received directly and played by the user’s media player software in real-time.
The following are additional options for customers of our LimelightDELIVER and LimelightSTREAM services:
Advanced reporting and control
A flexible customer portal called the LimelightEXCHANGE provides detailed information to help customers analyze their operations. A robust set of reports allow customers to monitor various aspects of their streaming or content delivery, such as object-level details, bandwidth and storage utilization, most requested content, and minutes listened or watched on each stream. Customers can request raw logs every 24 hours or live logs every 15 minutes, both of which are delivered in industry-standard format. For LimelightDELIVER, the portal provides download receipts which allow customers to receive and parse data about each file transaction, including details such as date, time, total bytes delivered, download time, and client IP address.
Table of Contents
LimelightEXCHANGE also enables customers to control how we publish and present their content. For example, to maintain content freshness or for managing exceptions, the Purge Utility allows authorized individuals to delete content cached across our CDN. Multi-user access and permission controls give customers the ability to limit access to reporting only, or to reporting and control functions.
LimelightHD is an extension to our LimelightSTREAM and LimelightDELIVER services that enables customers to efficiently delivery high-definition content to end users. The service includes a programming interface that verifies if an end-user has sufficient bandwidth available to receive HD content, and, if so, delivers a high-quality stream. The service also tracks the delivery of HD content separately from standard-definition content.
We offer a highly scalable security option that protects customers’ content from unauthorized access. With MediaVault, customers can associate a protected URL for each user and/or each request as part of the download URL. This allows customers to provide authorized users access to content without having to modify the content itself for each user. It also helps to prevent abuse from spiders, bots, and deep linking. Additional MediaVault controls include settings for start and stop dates/times for time-sensitive content and the ability to limit access for Windows Media streams to a block of IP addresses.
FLV Seek provides customers using LimelightDELIVER with more flexibility in how their end-users can play Flash Video files. For example, if an end-user wants to skip the first half of the video and start at the halfway point, only the second half of the file will be downloaded — providing faster access to desired content and reducing the size of the download.
In customer-origin configurations, the Headers feature enables customers to set business rules for how long their files remain in cache on our CDN, especially useful for highly volatile content. Since the Header settings are on the customer’s server, the customer is always in control.
With the Geo Reporting option, customers can assess traffic at the global, continent or city-by-city levels. Customers may view geographic information in a selection of table and map formats, including color-coded maps that show customers the active spots around the world. Customers may choose to display all geographies at once or only the top 10 locations. Using the LimelightEXCHANGE portal customers can compare locations based on number of requests, bytes sent, and total seconds, or as a percent of total volume. Customers may view the map to see data associated with that location, or click for more detail by country, state, or city. With quick and easy views of traffic data in different geographies, customers are in a position to determine and deliver targeted content and advertising to audiences around the world.
The Geo-Compliance option uses a geo-IP database to match requestors’ IP address with predefined rule sets. This makes it easy to ensure that customers’ content is not accessible outside of a defined geographic area — ideal for managing media licenses with geographic restrictions. For sites where advertising is a primary driver, Geo-Compliance can help a customer constrain its audience to the target geography of the customer’s site’s advertisers.