Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. ("Maxim" or the "Company" and also referred to as "we," "our" or "us") designs, develops, manufactures and markets a broad range of linear and mixed-signal integrated circuits, commonly referred to as analog circuits, for a large number of customers in diverse geographical locations. The analog market is fragmented and characterized by diverse applications, numerous product variations and, with respect to many circuit types, relatively long product life cycles. Our objective is to develop and market both proprietary and industry-standard analog integrated circuits that meet the increasingly stringent quality and performance standards demanded by customers.
We are a Delaware corporation that was originally incorporated in California in 1983. We are headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. The mailing address for our headquarters is 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, California 94086, and our telephone number is (408) 737-7600. Additional information about us is available on our website at www.maxim-ic.com.
The Mixed Signal Analog Integrated Circuit Market
All electronic signals generally fall into one of two categories, linear or digital. Linear (or analog) signals represent real world phenomena, such as temperature, pressure, sound, or speed, and are continuously variable over a wide range of values. Digital signals represent the "ones" and "zeros" of binary arithmetic and are either on or off.
Three general classes of semiconductor products arise from this distinction between linear and digital signals: digital devices, such as memories and microprocessors that operate primarily in the digital domain; linear devices such as amplifiers, references, analog multiplexers and switches that operate primarily in the analog domain; and mixed-signal devices such as data converter devices that combine linear and digital functions on the same integrated circuit and interface between the analog and digital domains.
Our strategy has been to target both the linear and mixed-signal markets, often collectively referred to as the analog market. However, some of our products are exclusively or principally digital. While our focus continues to be on the linear and mixed signal market, our capabilities in the digital domain enable development of new mixed signal and other products with highly sophisticated digital characteristics. Risks associated with pursuing this strategy are discussed in Item 1A - Risk Factors.
We employ a system addressing quality and reliability of our products from initial design through wafer fabrication, assembly, testing and final shipment. We have received ISO 9001/2, TS 16949 and ISO 14001 certifications for all wafer fabrication, assembly, final test and shipping facilities. Reliability stress testing is performed on products manufactured and sold by Maxim, based on industry standard requirements, in an effort to detect and accelerate the presence of defects that may arise over the life of a product in order to ensure the reliability of our products.
We primarily manufacture our own wafers and, to a lesser extent, utilize third-party silicon foundries to produce wafers. The majority of processed wafers are subjected to parametric and functional testing at our facilities. The broad range of products demanded by the mixed signal analog integrated circuit market requires multiple manufacturing process technologies. As a result, many different process technologies are currently used for wafer fabrication of our products. Historically, wafer fabrication of analog integrated circuits has not required the state-of-the-art processing equipment necessary for the fabrication of advanced digital integrated circuits, although newer processes do utilize and require such state-of-the-art facilities and equipment. In addition, hybrid and module products are manufactured using a complex multi-chip technology featuring thin-film, laser-trimmed resistors and other active or passive components. We primarily rely on our own fabrication technologies and facilities to implement such heightened manufacturing requirements, although we rely on unaffiliated manufacturing subcontractors to a lesser degree.
During fiscal years 2009, 2008 and 2007, most of our wafer production requirements occurred at one of our four owned wafer fabrication facilities consisting of the following:
At the end of fiscal year 2009, we ceased wafer fabrication efforts in our Dallas, Texas facility. In fiscal year 2007, we entered into a five-year supply agreement with Seiko Epson Corporation ("Epson") under which Epson has manufactured some of our mixed-signal semiconductor products. These products are manufactured by Epson under rights and licenses using our proprietary technology at Epson's fabrication facility located in Sakata, Japan. In fiscal years 2009, 2008, and 2007 the products manufactured by Epson represented 9%, 6% and 1% of our total wafer production, and we expect to continue to rely primarily on our own domestic facilities to meet our wafer production needs.
We have a separate wafer bump manufacturing facility located in Dallas, Texas. We use this facility to manufacture products that utilize chip scale packaging ("CSP") or wafer level packaging ("WLP"). CSP or WLP (collectively referred to as "CSP") enables integrated circuits to be attached directly to a printed circuit board without the use of a traditional plastic package. In addition, we utilize independent subcontractors to perform wafer bump manufacturing to the extent we do not have the internal capacity or capabilities to perform such services.
Once wafer manufacturing has been completed, wafers are generally sorted in order to determine which integrated circuits on each wafer are functional and which are defective. We currently perform wafer sort, final test and shipping activities at two facilities located in Cavite, the Philippines, and Chonburi Province, Thailand. Our finished products ship directly from either Cavite, the Philippines or Chonburi Province, Thailand to customers worldwide or to other Company locations for sale to end-customers or distributors. In addition, we utilize independent subcontractors to perform wafer sort.
Integrated circuit assembly is performed by foreign assembly subcontractors, located in the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, China, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea and Japan, where wafers are separated into individual integrated circuits and assembled into a variety of packages.
After assembly has been completed, the majority of the assembled product is shipped back to our facilities located in Cavite, the Philippines or Chonburi Province, Thailand where the packaged integrated circuits undergo final testing and preparation for customer shipment. In addition, we utilize independent subcontractors to perform final test.
We currently perform substantially all of our module assembly operations in our Batangas, Philippines facility. The Batangas, Philippines facility also performs wafer singulation and tape-and-reel of bumped (CSP or WLP) wafers.
Sales and Marketing
We market our products worldwide through a direct-sales and applications organization and through our own and other unaffiliated distribution channels to a broad range of customers in diverse industries. Our reliance on unaffiliated distributors was minor compared to our direct-sale efforts. Our products typically require a sophisticated technical sales effort. Our sales organization is divided into domestic and international regions. Distributors and direct customers generally buy on an individual purchase order basis, rather than pursuant to long-term agreements.
Certain distributors have agreements with us which allow for price protection on certain inventory if we lower the price of our products. Certain distributor agreements also generally permit distributors to exchange a portion of certain purchases on a periodic basis. As is customary in the semiconductor industry, our distributors may market products which compete with our products.
Sales to certain international distributors are made under agreements which permit limited stock return privileges but not sales price rebates. The agreements generally permit distributors to exchange a portion of their purchases on a periodic basis.
We operate in one reportable segment - the design, development, marketing and manufacturing of a broad range of linear and mixed signal integrated circuits. Our primary distributor, Avnet Electronics, accounted for approximately 12% of net revenues in fiscal year 2009. Distributors are not end customers, but rather serve as a channel of sale to many end users of the Company's products. No single customer accounted for more than 10% of net revenues in fiscal years 2008 and 2007. No single product accounted for more than 10% of net revenues in fiscal years 2009, 2008 and 2007. Based on customers' ship-to locations, international sales accounted for approximately 82%, 81% and 79% of net revenues in fiscal years 2009, 2008 and 2007, respectively. See Note 16, "Segment Information" in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements accompanying this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
At June 27, 2009 and June 28, 2008, our current quarter backlog was approximately $278 million and $326 million, respectively. We include in our backlog customer-released orders with firm schedules for shipment within the next 3 months. As is customary in the semiconductor industry, these orders may be canceled in most cases without penalty to the customers. In addition, our backlog includes orders from domestic distributors for which revenues are not recognized until the products are sold by the distributors. Accordingly, we believe that our backlog at any time should not be used as a measure of future revenues. All backlog numbers have been adjusted for estimated future U.S. distribution ship and debit pricing adjustments.