Northrop Grumman Corporation (herein referred to as “Northrop Grumman”, the “company”, “we”, “us”, or “our”) is an integrated enterprise consisting of businesses that cover the entire global security spectrum, from undersea to outer space and into cyberspace. The companies that are part of today’s Northrop Grumman have achieved historic accomplishments, from transporting Charles Lindbergh across the Atlantic to carrying astronauts to the moon’s surface and back.
The company was originally formed as Northrop Corporation in California in 1939 and was reincorporated in Delaware in 1985. From 1994 through 2002, we entered a period of significant expansion through acquisitions of other businesses, most notably:
In 1994, Northrop Corporation acquired Grumman Corporation (Grumman) and was renamed Northrop Grumman Corporation. Grumman was a premier military aircraft systems integrator and builder of the Lunar Module that first delivered men to the surface of the moon.
In 1996, we acquired the defense and electronics businesses of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, a world leader in the development and production of sophisticated radar and other electronic systems for the nation’s defense, civil aviation, and other international and domestic applications.
In 2001, we acquired Litton Industries (Litton), a global electronics and information technology enterprise, and one of the nation’s leading full-service design, engineering, construction, and life cycle supporters of major surface ships for the United States (U.S.) Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and international navies.
Also in 2001, we acquired Newport News Shipbuilding (Newport News). Newport News is the nation’s sole designer, builder and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and one of only two companies capable of designing and building nuclear-powered submarines.
In 2002, we acquired TRW Inc. (TRW), a leading developer of military and civil space systems and satellite payloads, as well as a leading global integrator of complex, mission-enabling systems and services.
Since 2002, other notable acquisitions include Integic Corporation (2005), an information technology provider specializing in enterprise health and business process management solutions and Essex Corporation (2007), a signal processing product and services provider to U.S. intelligence and defense customers. In addition, we divested our Advisory Services Division, TASC, Inc., in 2009.
These and other transactions have shaped us into our present position as a premier provider of technologically advanced, innovative products, services and solutions in aerospace, electronics, information and services and shipbuilding. As prime contractor, principal subcontractor, partner, or preferred supplier, we participate in many high-priority defense and commercial technology programs in the U.S. and abroad. We conduct most of our business with the U.S. Government, principally the Department of Defense (DoD). We also conduct business with local, state, and foreign governments and domestic and international commercial customers. For a discussion of risks associated with our DoD and foreign operations, see Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A.
From time to time, we acquire or dispose of businesses, and realign contracts, programs or business areas among and within our operating segments that possess similar customers, expertise, and capabilities. Internal realignments are designed to more fully leverage existing capabilities and enhance development and delivery of products and services. The operating results for all periods presented have been revised to reflect these changes made through December 31, 2009.
In January 2009, we streamlined our organizational structure by reducing the number of operating segments from seven to five. The five segments are Aerospace Systems, which combines the former Integrated Systems and Space Technology segments; Electronic Systems; Information Systems, which combines the former Information Technology and Mission Systems segments; Shipbuilding; and Technical Services. Creation of the Aerospace Systems and Information Systems segments was intended to strengthen our alignment with customers, improve our ability to execute on programs and win new business, and enhance cost competitiveness.
During the first quarter of 2009, we realigned certain logistics, services, and technical support programs and transferred assets from the Information Systems and Electronic Systems segments to the Technical Services segment. This realignment was intended to strengthen our core capability in aircraft and electronics maintenance, repair and overhaul, life cycle optimization, and training and simulation services.
During the first quarter of 2009, we transferred certain optics and laser programs from the Information Systems segment to the Aerospace Systems segment. The prior year sales and segment operating income were not reclassified to reflect this business transfer as the operating results of this business were not considered material.
In December 2009, we sold our Advisory Services Division (ASD), for $1.65 billion in cash to an investor group led by General Atlantic LLC and affiliates of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., and recognized a gain of $15 million, net of taxes. ASD was a business unit comprised of the assets and liabilities of TASC, Inc., its wholly-owned subsidiary TASC Services Corporation, and certain contracts carved out from other businesses also in our Information Systems segment that provide systems engineering technical assistance (SETA) and other analysis and advisory services.
In January 2008, we realigned the Newport News and Ship Systems businesses into a single operating segment called Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding. Previously, these businesses were separate operating segments which were aggregated into a single reporting segment for financial reporting purposes. In addition, we transferred certain Electronic Systems businesses to the former Mission Systems segment during the first quarter of 2008.
During the second quarter of 2008, we transferred certain programs and assets from the missiles business in the Information Systems segment to the Aerospace Systems segment. This transfer allowed Information Systems to focus on the rapidly growing command, control, communications, computing, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) business. The missiles business became an integrated element of our Aerospace business growth strategy.
Aerospace Systems, headquartered in Redondo Beach, California, is a premier developer, integrator, producer and supporter of manned and unmanned aircraft, spacecraft, high-energy laser systems, microelectronics and other systems and subsystems critical to maintaining the nation’s security and leadership in technology. Aerospace Systems’ customers, primarily government agencies, use these systems in many different mission areas including intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; communications; battle management; strike operations; electronic warfare; missile defense; earth observation; space science; and space exploration. The segment consists of four business areas: Strike & Surveillance Systems, Space Systems, Battle Management & Engagement Systems, and Advanced Programs & Technology.
Strike & Surveillance Systems – designs, develops, manufactures and integrates tactical and long-range strike aircraft systems, unmanned systems, and missile systems. These include the RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned reconnaissance system, B-2 stealth bomber, F-35 Lightning II joint strike fighter, F/A-18 Super Hornet strike fighter, Minuteman III Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), MQ-8B Fire Scout unmanned aircraft system, Multi-Platform Radar Technology Insertion Program (MP-RTIP), and aerial targets.
Space Systems – designs, develops, manufactures, and integrates spacecraft systems, subsystems and electronic and communications payloads. Major programs include the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) payload, Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) and many restricted programs.
Battle Management & Engagement Systems – designs, develops, manufactures, and integrates airborne early warning, surveillance, battlefield management, and electronic warfare systems. Key programs include the E-2 Hawkeye, Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS), Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) unmanned aircraft system, the EA-6B Prowler, and its next generation platform, the EA-18G Growler.
Advanced Programs & Technology – creates advanced technologies and concepts to satisfy existing and emerging customer needs. It matures these technologies and concepts to create and capture new programs that other Aerospace Systems business areas can execute. Existing programs include the Navy Unmanned Combat Air System (N-UCAS), the Airborne Laser (ABL), and other directed energy and advanced concepts programs.
Electronic Systems, headquartered in Linthicum, Maryland, is a leading designer, developer, manufacturer and integrator of a variety of advanced electronic and maritime systems for national security and select non-defense applications. Electronic Systems provides systems to U.S. and international customers for such applications as airborne surveillance, aircraft fire control, precision targeting, electronic warfare, automatic test equipment, inertial navigation, integrated avionics, space sensing, intelligence processing, air and missile defense, communications, mail processing, biochemical detection, ship bridge control and radar, ship machinery controls, and shipboard components. The segment is composed of seven business areas: Aerospace Systems; Defensive Systems; Government Systems; Land Forces; Naval & Marine Systems; Navigation Systems; and Space & Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) Systems.
Aerospace Systems – provides sensors, sensor processing, integrated sensor suites, and radar countermeasure systems for military surveillance and precision-strike; missile tracking and warning; and radio frequency electronic warfare. Fire control radars include systems for the F-16, F-22A, F-35, and B-1B. Navigation radars include commercial and military systems for transport and cargo aircraft. Surveillance products include the Airborne Warning and Control System radar, the Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) radar, the MP-RTIP, the ship-board Cobra Judy Replacement radar, and multiple payloads on the P-8A. Radio frequency electronic warfare products include radar warning receivers, self-protection jammers, and integrated electronic warfare systems for aircraft such as the EA-6B, EA-18, F-16, and F-15.
Defensive Systems – provides systems that support combat aviation by protecting aircraft and helicopters from attack, by providing capabilities for precise targeting and tactical surveillance, by improving mission availability through automated test systems, and by improving mission skills through advanced simulation systems. A wide variety of fixed wing and helicopter protection systems include threat detection and laser-based countermeasures systems to defeat ground-launched infrared-guided missiles. Defensive Systems’ countermeasures systems are currently installed on over 40 types of aircraft, many of which are conducting combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Targeting systems utilize lasers for target designation and precision weapon delivery, image processing, and target acquisition, identification, and tracking. The LITENING targeting pod system is combat-proven on the AV-8B, A-10A/C, B-52H, F-15E, F-16, and F/A-18A/C/D. Test systems include systems to test electronic components of combat aircraft on the flight line and in repair facilities. Defensive Systems also provides advanced simulators for use on test ranges and training facilities to emulate threats of potential adversaries. Customers include the U.S. government and a wide variety of international allies.
Government Systems – provides products and services to meet the needs of governments for improvements in the effectiveness of their civil and military infrastructure and of their combat and counter-terrorism operations. This includes systems and system integration of products and services for postal automation, for the detection and alert of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive material, and for homeland defense, communications, and enterprise management. Key programs include: Flats Sequencing System; International Sorting Centers; U.S. Postal Service bio-detection systems; and national level command and control, integrated air and missile defense and homeland defense systems for international customers.
Land Forces – provides a full range of warfighting system solutions for the “digital battlefield,” including fire control systems for airborne and tracked vehicles, air and ground sensors to detect enemy movement, tactical range finding and precise laser designation, and systems that detect and defend against enemy fire. These solutions include laser designators and rangefinders, ground-based tactical radars for warning of missile and artillery attack, situational awareness sensors, unattended sensor systems, ground vehicle communication networks, precision guided munitions and compact lightweight Synthetic Aperture Radar /Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI) radars for unmanned/rotary wing aircraft. Sensor technologies provided include radio frequency, infrared, and electro-optical. Principal programs include the Longbow Weapons System for the Apache attack helicopter, the Lightweight Laser Designator Rangefinder, the Vehicular Intercommunication System – Extended (VIS-X), the Firefinder counter-battery integrated radar system, the Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar System (G/ATOR), and the lightweight STARLite SAR/GMTI for unmanned air vehicles.
Naval & Marine Systems – provides major subsystems and subsystem integration for sensors, sensor processing, missile launching, ship controls and power generation. It provides systems to military surface and subsurface platforms, and bridge and machinery control systems for commercial maritime applications. Principal programs include: radars for navigation; radars for gun fire control and cruise missile defense; bridge management and control systems; power generation systems for aircraft carriers; power, propulsion, and launch systems for Virginia-class submarines; launch systems for Trident submarines; and unmanned semi-autonomous naval systems.
Navigation Systems – provides advanced navigation, avionics systems, and command and control centers for military and commercial applications. Its products are used in military air, land, sea, and space systems as well as commercial space and aircraft in both U.S. and international markets. Its subsidiaries, Northrop Grumman LITEF (Freiburg, Germany) and Northrop Grumman Italia (Pomezia, Italy), are leading European inertial sensors and systems suppliers. Key Navigation Systems programs and applications include: integrated avionics for the U.S. Marine Corps attack and utility helicopters and U.S. Navy E-2 aircraft; military navigation and positioning systems for the F-16 fighter, F-22A fighter/attack aircraft, Eurofighter, and U.S. Navy MH-60 helicopter; navigation systems for commercial aircraft; navigation systems for military and civil space satellites and deep space exploration. Navigation Systems also develops and produces fiber-optic acoustic systems for underwater surveillance for Virginia-class submarines and the AN/TYQ-23 multi-service mobile tactical command centers for the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Air Force.
Space & ISR Systems – provides space-based sensor and exploitation systems for civil, military, and U.S. intelligence community customers, as well as ground/surface based command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) solutions to process, exploit, and disseminate multi-sensor data. Capabilities include space-based payloads, radar, Overhead Non-Imaging Infrared sensors, electro-optic & multi/hyper-spectral sensors, passive microwave sounders, mission processing solutions, and Service-Oriented open architecture C4ISR systems. The current portfolio of programs includes the Spaced-Based Infrared System as the lead for the payload and mission processing systems, the Distributed Common Ground System-Army as the system integrator, as well as a variety of civil space and restricted programs.
Information Systems, headquartered in Reston, Virginia, is a leading global provider of advanced solutions for the DoD, national intelligence, federal civilian, state and local agencies, and commercial customers. Products and services are focused on the fields of command, control, communications, computers and intelligence; air and missile defense; airborne reconnaissance; intelligence processing; decision support systems; cybersecurity; information technology; and systems engineering and systems integration. The segment consists of three business areas: Defense Systems; Intelligence Systems; and Civil Systems.
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
Defense Systems – is a major end-to-end provider of net-enabled Battle Management C4ISR systems, decision superiority, and mission-enabling solutions and services in support of the national defense and security of our nation and its allies. The division is a prime developer and integrator of many of DoD’s programs-of-record, particularly for command and control and communications for the Air Force, the Army, the Navy, and Joint Forces. Major product and services include Enterprise Infrastructure and Applications, Mission Systems Integration, Military Communications & Networks, BMC2 and Decision Support Systems, Global and Operational C2, Ground and Maritime Combat Systems, Air and Missile Defense, Combat Support Solutions and Services, Defense Logistics Automation, and Force and Critical Infrastructure Protection. Systems are installed in operational and command centers world-wide and across all DoD services and joint command.
Intelligence Systems – is focused on the delivery of world-class systems and services to the U.S. intelligence community. Major offerings include Studies & Analysis, Systems Development, Enterprise IT, Prime Systems Integration, Products, Sustainment, and Operations and Maintenance. Customer focus addresses several mission areas including Airborne ISR, Geospatial Intelligence, Ground Systems, Integrated Intelligence and dynamic Cyber defense. Sustaining and growing the business in today’s market mandates sharing meaningful information across agencies through development of cost effective systems that are responsive to mutual requirements. Intelligence Systems is also creating new responsive capabilities leveraging existing systems to provide solutions to customer needs through labs and integration centers.
Civil Systems – provides specialized information systems and services in support of critical government civil missions, such as homeland security, public health, cyber security, air traffic management and public safety. Primary customers are federal civilian agencies, with state and local customers and the U.S. Postal Service also being served. Civil Systems develops and implements solutions that combine a deep understanding of civil government domains with core expertise in prime systems integration, enterprise applications development, and high value IT services including cyber security, identity management and advanced network communications.
Shipbuilding, headquartered in Newport News, Virginia, is the nation’s sole industrial designer, builder, and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and one of only two companies capable of designing and building nuclear-powered submarines for the U.S. Navy. Shipbuilding is also one of the nation’s leading full service systems providers for the design, engineering, construction, and life cycle support of major programs for the surface ships of the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and international navies. The segment includes the following areas of business: Aircraft Carriers; Expeditionary Warfare; Surface Combatants; Submarines; Coast Guard & Coastal Defense; Fleet Support; and Services & Other.
Aircraft Carriers – The U.S. Navy’s newest carrier and the last of the Nimitz class, the USS George H. W. Bush, was delivered in May 2009. Design work on the next generation carrier, the Ford class has been underway for over eight years. The Ford class incorporates transformational technologies including an enhanced flight deck with increased sortie rates, improved weapons movement, a redesigned island, a new nuclear power plant design, flexibility to incorporate future technologies, and reduced manning. In 2008, Shipbuilding was awarded a $5.1 billion contract for construction of the first ship of the class, the Gerald R. Ford, which is scheduled for delivery in 2015. The segment also provides ongoing maintenance for the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier fleet through overhaul, refueling, and repair work. In 2009, the completion of the refueling and complex overhaul of the USS Carl Vinson was followed by the arrival of the USS Theodore Roosevelt, which is expected to be redelivered to the U.S. Navy following its refueling in early 2013. Shipbuilding is also currently performing a multi-year maintenance service of the first nuclear-powered carrier, USS Enterprise, with redelivery anticipated in early 2010.
Expeditionary Warfare – Shipbuilding is the sole provider of amphibious assault ships for the U.S. Navy. In 2009, construction of the Wasp class multipurpose amphibious assault ship was concluded with the delivery of LHD 8. Construction of the San Antonio class continues, with five ships delivered from 2005 to 2009 and four currently in construction. In 2007, Shipbuilding was awarded the construction contract for LHA 6, the first in a new class of enhanced amphibious assault ships. The first ship of the America class ships is currently under construction and is expected to join the fleet in 2013.
Surface Combatants – Shipbuilding designs and constructs Arleigh Burke class Aegis guided missile destroyers, as well as major components for the Zumwalt class, a land attack destroyer. Shipbuilding has delivered 26 Arleigh Burke destroyers to the U.S. Navy, currently has two under construction, and was awarded a long lead time material contract for a restart of the Arleigh Burke class in December 2009. Shipbuilding’s participation in the Zumwalt program includes detailed design and construction of the ships’ integrated composite deckhouses, as well as portions of the ships’ peripheral vertical launch systems. The U.S. Navy expects to build three Zumwalt class destroyers.
Submarines – Northrop Grumman is one of only two U.S. companies capable of designing and building nuclear-powered submarines. In February 1997, the company and Electric Boat, a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation, reached an agreement to cooperatively build Virginia class nuclear attack submarines. The initial four submarines in the class were delivered in 2004, 2006, and 2008. Shipbuilding and Electric Boat were awarded a construction contract in August 2003 for the second block of six Virginia class submarines, the first two of which were delivered in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Construction on the remaining four submarines is underway, with the last scheduled to be delivered in 2014. In December 2008, Shipbuilding and Electric Boat were awarded a construction contract for the third block of eight Virginia class submarines. The multi-year contract allows Shipbuilding and its teammate to proceed with the construction of one submarine per year in 2009 and 2010, and two submarines per year from 2011 to 2013. The eighth submarine to be procured under this contract is scheduled for delivery in 2019.
Coast Guard & Coastal Defense – Shipbuilding is a joint venture partner along with Lockheed Martin for the Coast Guard’s Deepwater Modernization Program. Shipbuilding has design and production responsibility for surface ships. In 2006, the Shipbuilding/Lockheed Martin joint venture was awarded a 43-month contract extension for the Deepwater program. The first National Security Cutter (NSC), USCGC Berthoff, was delivered to the Coast Guard in 2008 followed by the Waesche (NSC2) in 2009. Currently, the Stratton (NSC3) is in construction, and long lead procurement is underway for NSC4.
Fleet Support – Fleet Support provides after-market services, including on-going maintenance and repair work, for a wide array of naval and commercial vessels. The segment has ship repair facilities in the U.S. Navy’s largest homeports of Norfolk, Virginia, and San Diego, California.
Services & Other – Shipbuilding provides various services to commercial nuclear and non-nuclear industrial customers. In January 2008, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, a joint venture among Shipbuilding, Fluor Corporation, and Honeywell, was awarded a contract for site management and operations of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. In October 2008, Shipbuilding announced the formation of a joint venture with AREVA NP to build a new manufacturing and engineering facility in Newport News, Virginia, to help supply the growing American nuclear energy sector.
Technical Services, headquartered in Herndon, Virginia, is a leading provider of logistics, infrastructure, and sustainment support, while also providing a wide array of technical services including training and simulation. The segment consists of three areas of business: Systems Support; Training & Simulation; and Life Cycle Optimization & Engineering.
Systems Support – provides infrastructure and base operations management, including base support and civil engineering work, military aerial and ground range operations, support functions which include space launch services, construction, combat vehicle maintenance, protective and emergency services, and range-sensor-instrumentation operations. Primary customers include the Department of Energy, the DoD, the Department of Homeland Security, and the U.S. intelligence community, in both domestic and international locations.
Training and Simulation – provides realistic and comprehensive training to senior military leaders and peacekeeping forces, designs and develops future conflict training scenarios, and provides U.S. warfighters and international allies with live, virtual, and constructive training programs. This business area also offers diverse training applications ranging from battle command to professional military education. Primary customers include the DoD, Department of State and Department of Homeland Security.
Life Cycle Optimization and Engineering – provides complete life cycle product support and weapons system sustainment. This business area is focused on providing Performance Based Logistical support to the warfighter including supply chain management services, warehousing and inventory transportation, field services and mobilization, sustaining engineering, maintenance, repair and overhaul supplies, and on-going weapon maintenance and technical assistance. The group specializes in performing Contractor Logistics Support of both original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and third party aviation platforms involving maintenance and modification, and rebuilding essential parts and assemblies. Primary customers include the DoD as well as international military and commercial customers.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Our research and development activities primarily include independent research and development (IR&D) efforts related to government programs. IR&D expenses are included in general and administrative expenses and are generally allocated to U.S. Government contracts. IR&D expenses totaled $610 million, $564 million, and $522 million in 2009, 2008, and 2007, respectively. We charge expenses for research and development sponsored by the customer directly to the related contracts.
We maintain good relations with our 120,700 employees, of which approximately 20 percent are covered by 32 collective bargaining agreements. We re-negotiated 17 of our collective bargaining agreements in 2009. These negotiations had no material adverse effect on our results of operations.