The Procter & Gamble Company is focused on providing branded consumer packaged goods of superior quality and value to improve the lives of the world’s consumers. The Company was incorporated in Ohio in 1905, having been built from a business founded in 1837 by William Procter and James Gamble. Today, we market our products in more than 180 countries.
Financial Information about Segments
As of June 30, 2009, the Company was organized into three Global Business Units: Beauty; Health and Well-Being; and Household Care. We had six reportable segments under U.S. GAAP: Beauty; Grooming; Health Care; Snacks and Pet Care; Fabric Care and Home Care; and Baby Care and Family Care. Many of the factors necessary for an understanding of these businesses are similar. Operating margins of the individual businesses vary slightly due to the nature of materials and processes used to manufacture the products, the capital intensity of the businesses and differences in selling, general and administrative expenses as a percentage of net sales. Net sales growth by business is also expected to vary slightly due to the underlying growth of the markets of each business and products. While none of our reportable segments are highly seasonal, components within certain of our reportable segments, such as Batteries (Fabric Care and Home Care), Braun (Grooming) and Prestige Fragrances (Beauty) are seasonal. In addition, anticipation or occurrence of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, can drive unusually high demand for batteries.
Narrative Description of Business
Business Model. Our business model relies on the continued growth and success of existing brands and products, as well as the creation of new products. The markets and industry segments in which we offer our products are highly competitive. Many of the product segments in which we compete are differentiated by price (referred to as super-premium, premium, mid-tier value and low-tier economy products). Generally speaking, we compete with super-premium, premium and mid-tier value products. Our products are sold in more than 180 countries around the world primarily through mass merchandisers, grocery stores, membership club stores, drug stores and in “high-frequency stores,” the neighborhood stores which serve many consumers in developing markets. We work collaboratively with our customers to improve the in-store presence of our products and win the “first moment of truth”—when a consumer is shopping in the store. We must also win the “second moment of truth”—when a consumer uses the product, evaluates how well it met his or her expectations and whether it was a good value. We believe we must continue to provide new, innovative products and branding to the consumer in order to grow our business. Research and product development activities, designed to enable sustained organic growth, continued to carry a high priority during the past fiscal year. While many of the benefits from these efforts will not be realized until future years, we believe these activities demonstrate our commitment to future growth.
Key Product Categories. In 2009, two product categories accounted for 10% or more of consolidated net sales. The laundry category constituted approximately 17% of net sales in 2009 and 16% for the fiscal years 2008 and 2007. The diaper category constituted approximately 11% of net sales for fiscal year 2009 and 10% in 2008.
Key Customers. Our customers include mass merchandisers, grocery stores, membership club stores, drug stores and high-frequency stores. Sales to Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. and its affiliates represent approximately 15% of our total revenue in 2009, 2008 and 2007. No other customer represents more than 10% of our net sales. Our top ten customers account for approximately 30% of our total unit volume in 2009, compared to 31% of total unit volume in 2008 and 30% in 2007. The nature of our business results in no material backlog orders or contracts with the government. We believe our practices related to working capital items for customers and suppliers are consistent with the industry segments in which we compete.
Sources and Availability of Materials. Almost all of the raw and packaging materials used by the Company are purchased from others, some of whom are single-source suppliers. We produce raw materials, primarily chemicals, for further use in the manufacturing process. In addition, fuel, natural gas and derivative products are important commodities used in our plants, products and in the trucks used to deliver our products to customers. The prices we pay for materials and other commodities are subject to fluctuation. When prices for these items change, we may or may not pass on the change to our customers, depending on the magnitude and expected duration of the change. The Company purchases a substantial variety of other raw and packaging materials, no one of which is material to our business taken as a whole.
Trademarks and Patents. We own or have licenses under patents and registered trademarks which are used in connection with our activity in all businesses. Some of these patents or licenses cover significant product formulation and processes used to manufacture our products. The trademarks are important to the overall marketing and branding of our products. All major products and trademarks in each business are registered. In part, our success can be attributed to the existence and continued protection of these trademarks, patents and licenses.
Competitive Condition. The markets in which our products are sold are highly competitive. Our products compete against similar products of many large and small companies, including well-known global competitors. In many of the markets and industry segments in which we sell our products, we compete against other branded products as well as retailers’ private-label brands. We are well positioned in the industry segments and markets in which we operate—often holding a leadership or significant market share position. We market our products with advertising, promotions and other vehicles to build awareness of our brands in conjunction with an extensive sales force. We believe this combination provides the most efficient method of marketing for these types of products. Product quality, performance, value and packaging are also important competitive factors.
Research and Development Expenditures. Research and development expenditures enable us to develop technologies and obtain patents across all categories in order to meet the needs and improve the lives of our consumers. Total research and development expenses were $2,044 million in 2009, $2,212 million in 2008 and $2,100 million in 2007.
Expenditures for Environmental Compliance. Expenditures for compliance with federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations are fairly consistent from year to year and are not material to the Company. No material change is expected in fiscal year 2010.
Employees. The Company has approximately 135,000 employees.