Russ Koesterich, CFA, JD, Managing Director and head of Asset Allocation, is a member of the Global Allocation team within BlackRock's Multi-Asset Strategies Group. He serves as a member of BlackRock's Americas Executive Committee.
Mr. Koesterich's service with the firm dates back to 2005, including his years with Barclays Global Investors (BGI), which merged with BlackRock in 2009. Prior to his current role, Mr. Koesterich was BlackRock's Global Chief Investment Strategist and Chairman of the Investment Committee for the Model Portfolio Solutions business. Previously, he served as the Global Head of Investment Strategy for scientific active equities and as senior portfolio manager in the US Market Neutral Group. Prior to joining BGI, Mr. Koesterich was the Chief North American Strategist at State Street Bank and Trust. He began his investment career at Instinet Research Partners where he occupied several positions in research, including Director of Investment Strategy for both U.S. and European research, and Equity Analyst. He is a frequent contributor to financials news media and the author of two books, including his most recent "The Ten Trillion Dollar Gamble."
Mr. Koesterich earned a BA in history from Brandeis University, a JD from Boston College and an MBA from Columbia University. He is a CFA Charterholder.
Value Digger holds MSc. in Electrical Engineering, speaks four languages and has lived in the U.S. for many years. Also, he is a full-time investor and a freelance writer with one of the highest Followers per Article (F/A) rates in Seeking Alpha. His F/A rate in Seeking Alpha is above 30.
After creating "Nathan's Bulletin" (a subscription-based investment guide for investors who can't afford a financial advisor), Value Digger launched a subscription-based Premium Service in Seeking Alpha entitled "A Fundamental Investor's Stock Club" which includes an unparalleled, actively-managed and high-return Portfolio of unknown and/or underfollowed stocks. Regularly updated and detailed lists in his Premium Posts PROVE these high returns. For reference, when Value Digger was managing money in the early 2000s, his Portfolio's annual ROI consistently exceeded 50%. His Premium Research is based on a comprehensive review of company-specific factors, macro conditions, competitors and the industry trends.
When it comes to his publicly-available picks and his free Seeking Alpha articles, Value Digger is ranked in the TOP-50 with a success rate of over 80%, an average return per recommendation of over 30% and a 5-star rating according to TipRanks.com, which is the highest category quality ranking used to evaluate financial experts. TipRanks.com is a comprehensive investing tool that allows private investors and day traders to see the measured performance of anyone who publicly provides financial advice. TipRanks.com collects data, evaluates and ranks 9,000 financial experts worldwide.
After almost 30 years of investing experience in the international markets (U.S., Canada, Australia, Europe), Value Digger has formulated a deep understanding of valuation analysis and his investment philosophy is firmly grounded in Ben Graham-style value-oriented opportunities that often have an assymetric risk/reward profile. On that front, he has created a unique proprietary database with thousands of publicly-traded companies per sector, which helps him spot the bargains and the bubbles before many investors find them.
Led by MIT engineers and Wall Street analysts, Trefis.com helps you understand how a company's products, that you touch, read, or hear about everyday, impact its stock price.
Surprisingly, the founders of Trefis discovered that along with most other people they just did not understand even the seemingly familiar companies around them: Apple, Google, Coca Cola, Walmart, GE, Ford, Gap, and others.
This might include you though you may have invested money in these companies, or may have been working with one of them for years as an employee, or have consulted with them as an expert for a long time.
Consider these questions:
•What % of Apple's stock price is iPhones? (Q: Is it 5%, 25%, or 50%?)
•What % of Dell's stock price is Dell Notebooks?
•If Bing took half the market share from Google Search, what % upside could there be for Microsoft’s stock?
On Trefis you will get answers to questions like above.
You can play with assumptions, or try scenarios, as-well-as ask questions to other users and experts. The platform uses extensive data to show in a single snapshot what drives the value of a company's business.
Trefis makes the same content, data, and tools that are currently available only to professional investors today, accessible to everyone. Importantly, it makes the extensive data/tools easy to use and understand, allowing investors to leverage the platform in their decision making much more efficiently than anything else available.
Trefis is currently used by hundreds of thousands of investors, company employees, and business professionals.
Ron Hiram currently manages investment portfolios and assists earlier stage companies in their capital raising efforts. He served as Chief Executive Officer of Cellnet Solutions, Ltd., a supplier of remotely managed networks of public wireless terminals providing voice as well as value-added data services in developing countries, from April 2008 until March 2010. From 2003 to May 2008, Mr. Hiram was a Managing Partner of Eurofund 2000 L.P., a venture capital fund focused on Israeli-related companies in the telecommunications, information technology and microelectronic spheres. Previously, from 2001-2002, Mr. Hiram co-headed TeleSoft Partners' investment activities in Israel. TeleSoft Partners is a Silicon Valley venture capital fund focusing on companies developing telecommunication-related technologies. Between1994-2000, Mr. Hiram served as Managing Director and Partner at Soros Fund Management LLC ("Soros"), an international hedge fund in New York, devoting the bulk of his time to private equity investments. Prior to joining Soros, Mr. Hiram worked at Lehman Brothers for thirteen years (also in New York), most recently serving as Managing Director of a workout and restructuring group. Mr. Hiram has served on the boards of directors of companies publicly listed in the U.S., including Ulticom, Inc. since January 2000 and Comverse Technology, Inc. from 1985-1986 and from 2001-2006 (including as chairman of the board from May 2006 to December 2006). Mr. Hiram also served on the board of TASE listed E. Wardinon Ltd. (2005-2007) and on the boards of numerous privately held companies. Mr. Hiram received an M.B.A. from Columbia University in 1981 and a B.Comm. from the University of Natal, Durban, South Africa, in 1979.
Ron Rowland is a portfolio manager with Flexible Plan Investments, Ltd., a Registered Investment Advisor specializing in active management, located in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.
He has been providing market commentary and active investment advice since 1991. He is the founder and editor of Invest With An Edge, a website and weekly newsletter providing free actionable ideas for ETFs, and the home of ETF Deathwatch.
Additionally, he is the Executive Editor of the All Star Investor newsletter (http://allstarinvestor.com), a highly regarded paid subscription investment service he started in 1991.
David Fry writes a subscription newsletter focused on technical analysis of exchange-traded funds, called ETF Digest (www.etfdigest.com). Dave founded the ETF Digest in 2001 and was among the very first to see the need for a publication that provided individual investors with information and actionable advice on global ETF investing.
We particularly like the overview of financial markets that his work provides. Even if you're not a fan of chart analysis, Dave provides insight and commentary into which global markets are "working" and why.
Specializing as a market strategist and tactician, Fry focuses on evaluating, creating and implementing a variety of ETF portfolios for individual investors and financial professionals. His philosophy and approach incorporates fundamental with technical analysis in pursuit of risk management and capital preservation especially during uncertain and volatile times.
His new eBook, The Best ETFs: U.S. Equities,is now available on Amazon Kindle. Written as a cheat sheet to only the best ETFs for you or your client’s portfolios. For those that don't have a Kindle, you can purchase the pdf here: The Best ETFs: US Equities [https://gumroad.com/l/The%20Best%20ETFs]
It’s a shame, really, that much of what is offered here – at no charge – is not taught in the public schools. Why is it that you can graduate in the top of your high school class and know next to nothing about credit card debt, adjustable-rate mortgages, or 401(k)s?
Founded in 1999, the goal of Investment U is to give you impartial, no-nonsense advice on how to build long-lasting wealth.
Our mission is to analyze and discuss all the important financial tools at your disposal. And to make sure, too, that you use them effectively to jump-start your net worth, cut your investment costs dramatically, reduce your risk profile and, most importantly, achieve and maintain total financial independence.
It’s the latter point that is truly our goal here at Investment U. Because no one has the opportunity to live his life fully if he’s a slave to his job, his financial obligations, or his overhead. Or, worse, if he’s worried he won’t be able to maintain a comfortable retirement… or leave behind some kind of legacy.
The essential truth of modern economic life is that money gives you choices. Chief among these is the opportunity to do what you want, where you want, with whom you want. That’s what financial freedom is all about.
It’s too bad we don’t discover this at a younger age. But then, it’s never too late to start learning… or to finish our investment education.
Over time, the insights and analyses offered by Investment U – delivered daily in our e-letter – can make a dramatic difference in any investor’s net worth and financial security. And you can hardly beat the price…
After all, it’s free and you’ll receive this Free report: Why It’s “Mayday” For the Euro… And What You Should Do. Please visit: www.investmentu.com.
Disclaimer: Money Morning and Stansberry & Associates Investment Research are separate companies, and entirely distinct. Their only common thread is a shared parent company, Agora Inc. Agora Inc. was named in the suit by the SEC and was exonerated by the court, and thus dropped from the case. Stansberry & Associates was found civilly liable for a matter that dealt with one writer’s report on a company. The action was not a criminal matter. The case is still on appeal, and no final decision has been made.
Writer and investor with an interest in most everything -- stocks, ETFs, commodities, and currencies. My background is in both economics and journalism so I try to present complex ideas clearly and concisely, but with a dash of creativity.
MyPlanIQ.com is the only web application that offers advanced asset allocation strategies customized to a wide range of retirement and taxable investment plans such as 401(k), IRA and brokerage accounts. The unique key advantages of MyPlanIQ.com are
1. Superior investment strategies with high return and low risk
* Asset allocation based on a wide diversified array of assets
* Strategic and Tactical asset allocation that have been well researched, proven and utilized by hedge funds and wealth management
* Superior fund selection.
2. Customization down to specific retirement, variable annuity (VA), variable life insurance (VUL), college savings and brokerage taxable investment plans
* Supporting thousands of 401k, 403b, brokerage ETF/Mutual Fund, IRA, VA, VUL and 529 plans
* Taking redemption, fees and other factors into account for the available investment choices in a plan
* Customized portfolios tailored to available funds in a plan and personal risk profile.
3. An easy to use yet powerful platform
* Online portfolios monitored daily and regular rebalance email notification
* Easy yet powerful tools to allow portfolio construction and study
* A vibrant community to share and discuss investment issues
4. Low cost and flat fee
MyPlanIQ.com enables private investors to achieve institutional investment results and experience with a fraction of cost and efforts.
I have worked in the financial service industry for 40 years. My area of expertise is risk management and complex financial products. I have been a frequent speaker, on behalf of many financial firms, to financial professionals across the country.
I have extensive experience in statistics and actuarial science.
Michael Lee, founder of Epsilon in Chico, California, is a passionate business professional who has helped establish successful businesses and uses this experience to meet the needs of businesses, non-profits, and individuals with whom he works. The backgrounds of Lee and his consulting staff include finance, accounting, investing, business development, design, and marketing.
Also the developer of The Stock Advisor smartphone apps, a series of apps that deliver recommendations and investment education to its users, Epsilon has successfully outreached its services to clients around the world and continues to look for better ways to assist individuals and businesses achieve their financial goals.
More information can be found at www.epsilonfbd.com or by searching for "The Stock Advisor" in your smartphone's app store.
1- Authored three books on the subject of covered call writing.
2- Produced a 4-part DVD and CD Series based on the seminars presented
on the same subject.
3- Presented over 50 seminars during the past two years on the subject of stock
4- Filmed Speaker at the LIREIA Deal Panel Forum in 2006.
5- Featured Speaker (along with Than Merrill of A&E's Flip This House) at the
LIREIA December meeting.
6- Author over 200 journal articles published on my website (blog link) weekly on
the subject of the economy and stock investing in particular
7- 20 years of successful investing in the Stock Market (33% return in 2007).
8- Recently named Investor of the Month by David Lindahl, a world renowned
9- Speaker for The Learning Annex
10- Series 65- successful completion
11- Guest speaker on Danielle Hampson's Mind Your Bizness radio program
12- Guest speaker on Jordan Kimmel's VoiceAmerica Business Radio Program
1- Professional Level; General Dentist
2- Licensed Real Estate Salesperson
3- Licensed Certified Personal Trainer
4- A myriad of real estate and stock market classes and seminars
5- Series 65- Investment Advisor Rep
Mind Your Bizness Radio Show interview:
Joe Eqcome is the pen name of Robert A. Frank, CFA, a Wall Street executive who has spent over 30 years as an investment professional. Mr. Frank is the founder of GrowthIncome Research & Management, LLC.
GrowthIncome Research & Management, LLC’s business mission is focused on generating supplemental retirement income through investment in regulated investment companies (“RIC’s” or “investment companies”) whereby the Firm can maximize investment income for its clients by virtue of the RIC’s conduit status.
RIC's include closed-end funds (CEF’s), open-end funds (mutual funds) and exchange traded funds (ETF’s). Other non-RIC, conduit vehicles include real estate investment trusts (REIT’s) and Master Limited Partnerships (MLP’s). Particular emphasis is placed on CEFs given their under-research and inefficient valuations.
Mr. Frank, a chartered financial analyst (CFA), spent his first 20 years in the investment business as a real estate research analyst for the investment banking firm of Alex Brown & Sons, Inc., (later sold to Deutsche Bank) where he was a managing director and group head of the real estate securities researched division.
Mr. Frank was later an executive vice-president, director of equity research and co-head of capital markets at Legg Mason, Inc. Mr. Frank founded Intellectual Capital Markets, Inc., a financial services firm in which he sold his interest; he also served as a real estate investment banker at a regional investment banking firm.
Mr. Frank has been a former "Institutional Investor" All-Star Analyst for multiple years, a featured interviewee for Barron's Magazine multiple times, a guest on Wall $treet Week and Bloomberg TV, former governor of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”), charter member of the Berman Institute at the Johns Hopkins University, former Trustee of the University of Baltimore, former Trustee at Friends School of Baltimore, former director of Mid-Atlantic Realty Trust (sold to Kimco Realty Trust, Inc.), recipient of the “Life-Time Achievement Award” by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts and the American Real Estate Society's "Award of Merit".
Evaluate Energy is a London based Oil and Gas consultancy and software firm.
Its product is used by the world's leading energy corporations and their advisors as a prime source of strategic, financial and operating analysis of company and industry performance. It's unique software gives clients the edge in getting this information quickly and easily.
I am a former hedge fund portfolio manager that trades for my own personal account. I espouse Graham and Dodd/Buffett style investing, always on the lookout for value equities or bonds. A graduate of Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management, I lived in NYC for a decade before relocating with my family to the Charlotte, NC area in 2007.
Currently I am the Chief Analyst at sharpeequities.com.
For more information on my current endeavor, feel free to find me on LinkedIn.
James A. Kostohryz has accumulated over twenty years of experience investing and trading virtually every asset class across the globe.
Kostohryz started his investment career as an analyst at one of the US's largest asset management firms covering sectors as diverse as emerging markets, banking, energy, construction, real estate, metals and mining. Later, Kostohryz became Chief Global Strategist and Head of International Investments for a major investment bank. Kostohryz currently manages his own investment firm, specializing in proprietary trading and institutional portfolio management advisory.
Born in Mexico, Kostohryz grew up between south Texas and Colombia, has lived and worked in nine different countries, and has traveled extensively in more than 50 others. Kostohryz actively pursues various intellectual interests and is currently writing a book about the impact of culture on economic development. He is a former NCAA and world-class decathlete and has stayed active in a variety of sports.
Kostohryz graduated with honors from both Stanford University and Harvard Law School.
You can receive custom delivery of all of Mr. Kostohryz's published work on Seeking Alpha, The Street, and other media, as well as exclusive material, by following the link below. It is absolutely free:
You may connect with Mr. Kostohryz via the following social networks:
When connecting, be sure to identify yourself as a Seeking Alpha reader.
David P. Goldman was global head of debt research for Banc of America Securities and earlier global head of credit strategy at Credit Suisse. He was until July 2008 the strategist for a credit hedge fund, Asteri Capital, one of the few credit funds to show a profit between July 2007 and July 2008. He is now Associate Editor of First Things (www.firstthings.com) and a columnist (under the byline "Spengler") for Asia Times Online.
Elliott Gue knows energy. Since earning his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of London, Elliott has dedicated himself to learning the ins and outs of this dynamic sector, scouring trade magazines, attending industry conferences, touring facilities and meeting with management teams.
For seven years, Elliott Gue shared his expertise and stock-picking abilities with individual investors through a highly regarded, energy-focused research publication. Elliott Gue’s knowledge of the sector and prescient investment calls prompted the official program of the 2008 G-8 Summit in Tokyo to call him “the world’s leading energy strategist.”
He has also appeared on CNBC and Bloomberg TV and has been quoted in a number of major publications, including Barron’s, Forbes and the Washington Post.
In October 2012, Elliott Gue launched the Energy & Income Advisor (www.EnergyandIncomeAdvisor.com), a semimonthly online newsletter that’s dedicated to uncovering the most profitable opportunities in the energy sector, from growth stocks to high-yielding utilities, royalty trusts and master limited partnerships.
The masthead may have changed, but subscribers can expect the same in-depth analysis and rational assessments of investment opportunities in the energy sector.
Blue Sky Investment Partners is an investment advisory firm that specializes in managing portfolios for high net worth families. Michael Willman is the firm’s president and chief investment officer. Mr. Willman has over 16 years of experience researching investments and managing portfolios for individuals and institutions. Mr. Willman began his investment career as a research analyst focusing on traditional investments like stock and bond separate account managers, mutual funds and exchange traded funds (ETFs). Later in his career, Mr. Willman spent eight years as the Research Director of a wealth management firm that focused heavily on alternative investment strategies including hedge funds, private equity, commodities, oil and gas, timber and real estate. The exposure over the years to both traditional and alternative investments gives Mr. Willman both a solid understanding of the global markets and also a vast network of contacts to vet investment ideas.
Street One Financial LLC (S1F or Street One) is an independent entity affiliated with Precision Securities, LLC., a full service registered broker dealer and a member of FINRA/SIPC. Street One specializes in educating, evaluating and trading ETFs, equities and options. Our firm assists portfolio managers in constructing their portfolios and identifying which ETF products may provide the best desired exposure by specific manager objective, fees and liquidity. The ETF/ETP landscape is evolving rapidly and has diversified quickly beyond passive equity index ETFs. Now actively managed strategies, fundamental and quantitative ETFs, as well as those that offer exposure to fixed income, commodities or even volatility indexes are available to all investors. Street One believes the key to understanding this rapidly changing environment is to learn how specific products work and where they may fit within a manager's portfolio. In addition to ETFs, options, and equities, we also handle closed end funds (CEF) trade execution and access to liquidity.
All Street One Financial trades are executed by Precision Securities, LLC.
Maz Jadallah is the founder of AlphaClone, a technology-driven investment management firm where he serves as CEO and Portfolio Manager. Prior to founding AlphaClone, Maz spent 12 years in senior financial analyst, strategy and technology management roles. Most recently Maz was SVP of Corporate Development at Nasdaq-traded OpenTV. Prior to that, Maz worked at Time Warner Inc where amongst other roles he served as Senior Director reporting directly to Richard Parsons, the then co-COO. Maz is a life long investor, a registered investment advisor representative and has a Series 65 license. He holds an MBA with honors in Finance and Management from Rollins College and a BS in Industrial Engineering from Texas Tech University.
I am an individual investor managing my retirement funds and investment funds of other high net worth individuals from Queenstown, New Zealand.
I recently retired from a merchant bank in New York, where I ran a macro proprietary trading portfolio for 10 years. I achieved a compound 30% return p.a. compounded with no down years.
We split our capital about equally across investment opportunities in equities, fixed income, commodities and currencies.
In essence I am looking for global investment themes that offer significant value, and I enter trades when the market gives enough evidence of a change in trend.
I am a long term investor who generally looks to invest in themes and hold them for at least 12 months.
Marc is the founder and owner of Advanced Investor Technologies, LLC, as well as the publisher and editor at the internationally acclaimed web site www.ChecktheMarkets.com.
He holds an MS in Clinical Psychology from California Polytechnic State University, and is a former senior vice-president of Investments for two major brokerage firms. Besides his role as an investment publisher and analyst, he serves as a marketing consultant to the investment publishing and investment media industries.
In his role as a financial editor, he specializes in unique investment strategies, wealth preservation, understanding the investment markets ,value stocks, precious metals and energy stocks, emerging growth companies, ETFs, tax issues as well as "the psychology of investing". Besides his loved ones, he sees his personal "calling" as someone who helps others succeed and achieve financial security.He's been a motivational speaker and personal development specialist for over 35 years.
In addition, he's been interviewed on such popular media sites as The Money Show and The Oxford Club. Marc is a published author who has written hundreds of articles for a wide variety of investment newsletters and web sites. He has a special passion for helping "make the complex more simple", and is a big advocate of the K.I.S.S. (Keep It Successfully Simple) approach to investing and living life.
Mike Havrilla is a former pharmacist (retail and home infusion settings), biotech stock trader, and writer with experience that includes full-time online trading since 2009, working as a full-time pharmacist from 2004-2009, and writing for investors since 2007. Mike holds Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) and Bachelor of Science (Biology) degrees from the University of Pittsburgh and worked in the pharmaceutical industry for Wyeth prior to pharmacy school. He is also an avid runner and has completed over 20 marathons with a personal best time under three hours for the 26.2 mile race and under 80 minutes for the half marathon. Mike merged his former publishing business with BioRunUp.com / Mark Messier in October 2010, creating a new online biotech stock research and trading subscription service.
Think B.I.G., by Bespoke Investment Group, provides some of the most original content and intuitive thinking on the Street. Founded by Paul Hickey and Justin Walters, formerly of Birinyi Associates and creators of the acclaimed TickerSense blog, Bespoke offers multiple products that allow anyone, from institutions to the most modest investor, to gain the data and knowledge necessary to make intelligent and profitable investment decisions. Along with running their Think B.I.G. finance blog, Bespoke provides timely investment ideas through its Bespoke Premium (http://bespokepremium.com/) subscription service and also manages money (http://bespokepremium.com/mm) for high net worth individuals.
Visit: Bespoke Investment Group (http://bespokeinvest.com/)
Richard is the managing principal of QVM Group LLC, a fee-based investment advisor based in Connecticut, with clients across the country. . QVM manages portfolios uniquely designed for each client on a flat fee basis through the client’s own accounts at Schwab; and provides investment coaching to "do-it-yourself" investors on an hourly fee basis. The investment approach is based on value, asset allocation, expense control, risk management, customizing portfolios to each client's specific circumstances, and regular communication about strategy and absolute and benchmark performance. Richard's extensive experience includes serving having served as a Board Director of Phoenix Investment Counsel, a U.S. pension and mutual funds manager, now Virtus Investment Partners (New York Stock Exchange: VRTS http://www.virtus.com); as Managing Director of Phoenix American Investment in London; and as a Board Director Aberdeen Asset Management PLC in Aberdeen Scotland (London Stock Exchange: ADN http://www.aberdeen-asset.com). He has been a Trustee of a $500 million pension fund, and was a charter investor and member of the Board of Directors of several internet companies, including Lending Tree (NASDAQ: TREE http://www.lendingtree.com) prior to its IPO. He is a 1970 graduate of Dartmouth College. QVM Group LLC is a Registered Investment Advisor. Visit the QVM Group website. (http://www.qvmgroup.com). Follow him on Twitter: @QVMinvest
Whitney Tilson is the founder and Managing Partner of Kase Capital Management, which manages three value-oriented hedge funds. Mr. Tilson is also the co-founder of Value Investor Insight, an investment newsletter.
Mr. Tilson has co-authored two books, The Art of Value Investing: How the World's Best Investors Beat the Market (2013) and More Mortgage Meltdown: 6 Ways to Profit in These Bad Times (2009), was one of the authors of Poor Charlie’s Almanack, the definitive book on Berkshire Hathaway Vice Chairman Charlie Munger, and has written for Forbes, the Financial Times, Kiplinger’s, the Motley Fool and TheStreet.com. He was featured in two 60 Minutes segments in December 2008 about the housing crisis (which won an Emmy) and in March 2015 about Lumber Liquidators. He served for two years on the Board of Directors of Cutter & Buck, which designs and markets upscale sportswear, until the company was sold in early 2007.
Mr. Tilson received an MBA with High Distinction from the Harvard Business School, where he was elected a Baker Scholar (top 5% of class), and graduated magna cum laude from Harvard College, with a bachelor’s degree in Government.
Mr. Tilson spent much of his childhood in Tanzania and Nicaragua (his parents are both educators, were among the first couples to meet and marry in the Peace Corps, and have retired in Kenya). Consequently, Mr. Tilson is involved with a number of charities focused on education reform and Africa. For his philanthropic work, he received the 2008 John C. Whitehead Social Enterprise Award from the Harvard Business School Club of Greater New York. He is a member and past Chairman of the Manhattan chapter of the Young Presidents’ Organization. Mr. Tilson lives in Manhattan with his wife and three teenage daughters.