Brad Thomas is a research analyst and he currently writes weekly for Forbes and Seeking Alpha where he maintains research on many publicly-listed REITs. In addition, Thomas is the Senior Analyst at iREIT Forbes and Editor of the Forbes Real Estate Investor, a monthly subscription-based newsletter.
Thomas has also been featured in Forbes Magazine, Kiplinger’s, US News & World Report, Money, NPR, Institutional Investor, GlobeStreet, and Fox Business. He was the #1 contributing analyst on Seeking Alpha in 2014 (as ranked by TipRanks) and he is currently writing a book on the legendary investor Donald Trump.
Thomas has co-authored a book (The Intelligent REIT Investor) that is available on Amazon.
Thomas received a Bachelor of Science degree in Business/Economics from Presbyterian College where he played basketball. He resides in South Carolina with his wife and kids.
I like exposing Penny Stock Pump and Dumps. Most of my research is done to help good hard working people avoid being scammed into investing in a pump and dump. Share the reports to show Seeking Alpha they are worth publishing this kind of information to help people avoid losing money in pump and dumps.
Cliff Wachtel, CPA, is currently the Director of Market Research, New Media and Training for Caesartrade.com, a fast growing forex and CFD broker. He covers a variety of topics including global market drivers, forex, currency hedged and diversified income investing, and is currently working on a unique project related to that asset class - MLPs.
He is also the author of The Sensible Guide To Forex, and publisher of thesensibleguidetoforex.com. Both the book and website are uniquely dedicated to providing safer, simpler ways for active traders and passive long term income investors to use forex markets to diversify out of currencies like the USD, EUR, JPY, and others that are being debased by central bank policies, and so hedge currency risk and boost returns.
Since the Great Financial Crisis began in 2007, Cliff was among the first financial writers to focus on stocks that provide steady, high yields currency diversification for insurance against currencies being steadily devalued. Articles focus on both top income stocks for exposure to multiple quality currencies, and safer, simpler less demanding types of longer term forex trades than commonly covered on other forex sites.
He also posts a variety of articles on topics ranging from weekly strategic global market analysis, conservative forex trading, assorted special reports, currency diversified income investing, binary options, and trader training articles via multiple websites. His home sites include: globalmarkets.anyoption.com, thesensibleguidetoforex.com, caesartrade.com, globalmarkets.com, and others. Most can also be found at leading financial websites like seekingalpha.com, businessinsider.com, and forex sites like forexfactory.com and fxstreet.com. His work is regularly translated into numerous languages, including Spanish, French, Italian, Turkish and Russian, Arabic, German, and Chinese, often with his express knowledge and permission!
He has appeared in a variety of offline publications including Forex Journal, and John Nyaradi’s book, Super Sectors, in which he was interviewed along with other market experts like Jim Rodgers, Dr.Marc Faber, John Mauldin, Robert Prechter, and Tom Lydon.
Prior to his current positions, he was Chief Analyst at avafx.com, and a 30+ year financial market veteran as investor, trader, writer, analyst and advisor to private clients and institutions. He attended Vassar College and Cornell University, and is a certified public accountant.
He’s married with 5 children and lives in Jerusalem, Israel, where he can follow Asian markets in the early morning, Europe through the workday, and the Americas at night.
I am a Level III candidate in the CFA program. I have passed the Level I exam in June 2014 and the Level II exam in June 2015.
Outside of my interest in investing and stock analysis (which I currently do in my free time,) I am an IT project manager for a large multi-national firm. With my background in technology I have particular interest and stronger circle of competence in tech stocks, although I venture from this domain to certain other industries as well where I feel the businesses are simple and understandable or where I have particular first hand knowledge.
I consider myself a value investing enthusiast, following a bottom up fundamental analysis style approach. My value investing approach is quite simple - I look to "figure out the value of something, and pay a lot less".
I do not consider Growth and Value stocks as mutually exclusive, and in fact my favorite investments are:
small cap companies with good long term growth prospects,
strong business fundamentals
low financial leverage,
trading at an attractive valuation, and with some sort of short term difficulties that have caused the market perception to be negative in the short term.
To value companies I use a variety of techniques, sometimes heavily favoring traditional value metrics like P/B, and also I like good business (ROIC, ROE) trading at attractive multiples against EBITDA. I do discounted cash flow analysis where appropriate, and in some cases favor heavily on comparative valuation.
Ashraf Eassa is a technology specialist with The Motley Fool. He writes mostly about technology stocks, but is especially interested in anything related to chips -- the semiconductor kind, that is.
Mr. Hui has been involved in the equity markets since 1980, both on the buy side and the sell side. He is a CFA Charterholder, and has presented numerous papers to quantitative discussion groups (Sample topics include: How Global are Resource Sectors).
Editor for The Biotech Forum (www.biotechforumsa.com), the #2 subscribed to Marketplace investment service offered through SeekingAlpha. Top 5% ranked analyst (TipRanks) 2013 through first half of 2015. Daily contributor for Real Money Pro. Hedge fund manager from 2008 to 2011. Previously technology executive at Fortune 100 firm for a decade. For Free weekly investment reports on small, attractive biotech stocks just register at www.bretjenseninvests.com
Bill Gunderson @billgunderson is the CEO and Chief Market Strategist of Gunderson Capital Managment in San Diego, CA.
He is also a professional money manager, former research analyst, author of Best Stocks Now, and developer of the Best Stocks Now smartphone app.
He offers four free weeks to his weekly Best Stocks Now to Seeking Alpha readers at gundersoncapital.com
He also hosts a daily stock market radio show that is syndicated nationwide on the Salem Broadcast Network.
Bill has appeared on the Fox Business Channel and on Bloomberg Radio numerous times .His articles have been published in Barron's, Forbes, TheStreet.com and numerous other publications.
He can be reached at email@example.com or by calling (855)611-BEST.
Paul Nathan has passionately written in support of a free marketplace and real money for over forty years.
Since 2008 Paul has been a contributing commentator for Kitco and writes a candid, real-time, Market Update for subscribing traders investors.
In 2011 John Wiley & Sons published The New Gold Standard, Paul Nathan’s definitive work on the gold standard past and present.
Paul called the end of the bull market for gold in 1980, the beginning of the 25 year tech revolution and bull market in 1982, went “All In” on gold and gold stocks in 2001, and alerted his readers to short the DOW at 14000 in July of 2007. 2008 and 2009, catastrophic years for most traders, were two of the best years in his trading career.
He went all cash in 2011, calling the top of the bull market in gold, and recently in December of 2015, predicted the end of the downturn and the beginning of a new move higher in gold and commodities.
See "commentaries" @ paulnathan.biz.
Think B.I.G., by Bespoke Investment Group, provides some of the most original content and intuitive thinking on the Street. Founded by Paul Hickey and Justin Walters, formerly of Birinyi Associates and creators of the acclaimed TickerSense blog, Bespoke offers multiple products that allow anyone, from institutions to the most modest investor, to gain the data and knowledge necessary to make intelligent and profitable investment decisions. Along with running their Think B.I.G. finance blog, Bespoke provides timely investment ideas through its Bespoke Premium (http://bespokepremium.com/) subscription service and also manages money (http://bespokepremium.com/mm) for high net worth individuals.
Visit: Bespoke Investment Group (http://bespokeinvest.com/)
Eric Parnell, CFA, is the Founder and Director of Gerring Capital Partners. Gerring Capital is a registered investment advisory firm seeking attractive returns opportunities emphasizing value, quality and risk control. Eric also publishes The Universal premium service on Seeking Alpha targeting winning strategies in bear and bull markets across the asset class universe. Gerring Capital implements these strategies for its investors and then Eric discusses them on The Universal. Eric is also a Visiting Instructor at Ursinus College in the Department of Business and Economics. Prior to founding Gerring in 2005, Eric was the Director of Investment Communications at SEI Investments and an Economist at Moody’s Analytics.
optionMONSTER® provides stock market insight, advanced options education, and actionable trade ideas to meet the needs of do-it-yourself investors. Our content is published daily at our website www.optionmonster.com in the form of free stories, webcasts, webinars, educational offerings and subscription services.
James A. Kostohryz has accumulated over twenty years of experience investing and trading virtually every asset class across the globe.
Kostohryz started his investment career as an analyst at one of the US's largest asset management firms covering sectors as diverse as emerging markets, banking, energy, construction, real estate, metals and mining. Later, Kostohryz became Chief Global Strategist and Head of International Investments for a major investment bank. Kostohryz currently manages his own investment firm, specializing in proprietary trading and institutional portfolio management advisory.
Born in Mexico, Kostohryz grew up between south Texas and Colombia, has lived and worked in nine different countries, and has traveled extensively in more than 50 others. Kostohryz actively pursues various intellectual interests and is currently writing a book about the impact of culture on economic development. He is a former NCAA and world-class decathlete and has stayed active in a variety of sports.
Kostohryz graduated with honors from both Stanford University and Harvard Law School.
You can receive custom delivery of all of Mr. Kostohryz's published work on Seeking Alpha, The Street, and other media, as well as exclusive material, by following the link below. It is absolutely free:
You may connect with Mr. Kostohryz via the following social networks:
When connecting, be sure to identify yourself as a Seeking Alpha reader.
Growth investor focused on fundamental analysis. Prefers small and mid-cap stocks, looking for companies with a legitimate chance to double in share price within a 24-month time period.
Nigam Arora is an engineer and nuclear physicist by background, has founded two Inc. 500 fastest growing companies, has been involved in over 50 ventures, is the developer of Theory ZYX of Successful Change Management, is the author of the book on Theory ZYX, as well as the developer of the ZYX Change Method to profit from change in trading and investing.
Theory ZYX of Successful Change
Nigam Arora is the original developer of Theory ZYX. He is also the author of the book Theory ZYX – A Definitive Guide to Reach the Next Level.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office has awarded Nigam Arora 26 patent claims on Theory ZYX.
Necessity is the mother of invention. Upon concluding that no rigorous analytical methodology existed to help him successfully create and manage change in one of his ventures, he rolled up his sleeves and plunged into action. Thus, Theory ZYX of Successful Change Management was born.
Most change management experts primarily come from the background of academia and psychology. Nigam has added a new dimension to the state-of-the-art change management based on his extensive change experience in business, operations, and technology.
Theory ZYX has been applied to strategy development,merger integration, vision development, accelerating innovation, cost reduction, increasing revenues and culture change.
The ZYX Change Method of Investing and Trading
Upon requests to adapt Theory ZYX of Change to help manage investments, Nigam developed the ZYX Method for Profiting from Change in Investing and Trading taking advantage of his over two decades of experience in developing technical, quantitative, and fundamental models as well as implementing gray boxes* to execute the models in a variety of market conditions.
Since 2007, Nigam has been illustrating the power of the ZYX Change Method by providing concise actionable calls on this site. The Arora Report blog focuses on providing clear signals and being concise about the trigger event which is one of the six screens of the ZYX Change Method.
Conceiving and executing change for the better has been a way of life for Nigam Arora.His passion for innovations in business and technology led to his founding of two of the fastest growing (Inc. 500) companies and over 50 other ventures. Action Systems, Inc., a company he founded, was ranked the 29th fastest growing Inc. 500 company. This company grew by capturing over 60% of the market share in the startup of Radiation Monitoring Systems to nuclear power plants and diversifying into a variety of energy projects.
He also founded Action Systems Technologies, Inc. that was ranked the 103rd fastest growing Inc. 500 company. The company grew by providing innovative technology services to Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Aerospace, Automotive, Defense, Distribution, Electronics, Energy, Food, Healthcare Information Technology, Logistics, Manufacturing and Mining industries.
He was the CEO of KnowledgeAZ, Inc., which developed software for eCommerce, logistics, supply chain and asset management.
He was the CEO of Utility Frontier, Inc., which was a Business-to-Business Exchange for 369 municipalities.
Other companies he founded included a provider of printed circuit boards to the computer and electronics industries, a manufacturer of computer networking hardware, a manufacturer of instruments for the energy industry, a solar power producer, a software developer for warehousing and material tracking, a software developer for plant maintenance, a change management consulting firm, and a provider of semiconductor testing services to automotive and defense industries.
Early Years in USA
Nigam graduated with a M.S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Kansas in less than one year .with a GPA of 3.94/4.00 Then he studied Marketing and Finance in an MBA program at Indiana University.
He developed an imaging system on a NASA funded project for the Center for Research, Inc.
Nigam led the development of one of the first automated computerized plant wide Radiation Monitoring and Control Systems for commercial nuclear power plants. He was also the first to discover and develop methods of accurately measuring certain nuclear isotopes in power plants. He was in charge of Engineering at NMC.
Early Years in India
Nigam Arora received a B.S. in Electronics Engineering from Punjab Engineering College with High Honors when he had just turned 20. He developed the first digital Phase Meter in India. He was selected in a program of the Indian Air Force under which he learned about electronics aboard fighter aircraft. He also worked on research at Central Scientific Instruments Organization.
We strive to build highly disciplined, sensible client portfolios. Portfolios that are focused on investing in businesses with solid free cash flows and solid dividend payouts. We buy businesses, not stocks.
Tim is a Registered Investment Advisor.
Markos N. Kaminis generated a 23% average annual return on "Strong Buy" stock selections over 5 years and ranked 2nd among a group of 60 analysts in-house as a Senior Equity Analyst over a seven-year period at Standard & Poor's. After proving his value in-house, he was promoted into a special role as an idea generator, supporting the portfolios of institutional clients as well as driving performance within S&P's recommended lists and portfolios. At times, Markos was responsible for up to 10% of the firm's entire "Strong Buy" list and is due a great deal of credit for the group's outstanding performance during his tenure.
Markos followed a group of 30-40 Small and Mid-Cap firms, and was charged with finding new buy and sell candidates across industry sectors. He generated a 23% average annual return over five years on his "Strong Buy" recommendations, and 26% over three years ended 2004. He was ranked 1st of 60 analysts in-house for his "Strong Buy" performance over 4 years (2nd over 5). Markos also authored IPO research and wrote for high-level newsletters, The Outlook, Equity Insights and Emerging Opportunities, as well as for BusinessWeek Online. He represented his firm as an analytical expert commentator for major media, including television, Internet and through quotes and interviews in reputable publications.
Besides predicting the stock market correction of 2015 through a series of prescient reports here in August. (see proof here: http://seekingalpha.com/article/3482226-investor-who-predicted-the-stock-market-correction-offers-an-update ), Markos also advised investors to buy stocks at the bottom of the market in mid-February 2016 and again post-Brexit at the trough, and to buy gold in January 2016 before the commodity started its move higher. While not perfect, over the years, Markos has made countless correct market and security calls for his followers, including forecasting the demise of J.C. Penney on the heralded CEO hire's disruptive plans, the bankruptcies of Washington Mutual and Pilgrim's Pride in the $30 and $20s, respectively, as well as the purchase of Facebook in the mid-$20s when it was considered a pariah post its IPO (today it is a market darling). Markos also warned of the real estate market collapse and the financial crisis in the early days of his blogging.
What I personally want you to know about my plans: After witnessing the worst of Wall Street firsthand and having the ideal vision of my childhood career choice corrupted by reality, I almost switched to full-time charity work at age 40 and still have plans for several non-profit endeavors. The future is somewhat unknown, and I am open to employment offers for portfolio management or other ideas. While continuing to publish regularly, I expect to begin work on several book ideas that I believe are important for business, for our nation and for society.
I may put my stock selection skills, earned through blood, sweat and tears, to better use, and to make my own way. I would like to give investors something rare, a dignified partner who can manage money with integrity and a clear conscience about the degree of due diligence behind investment decisions... someone who cares more about your money than your wife. I hope readers will become followers of my column here & at my blog, so that when our numbers are substantial, we might start an investment fund or two.
Prior to his Wall Street career, Mr. Kaminis spent time in the back-office, as a mutual fund accountant, where he managed for a time the work of two men. Before this, from age 11 to age 25, he worked as a carpenter's apprentice and carpenter with his father, in both commercial and residential projects. Mr. Kaminis has an intimate knowledge of the real estate (undergraduate degree in Real Estate and Finance) and construction market, as well as the restaurant industry.
However, as a generalist stock analyst, he showed the ability to learn any and the most complicated of industries in short time - and he gamed every challenge presented to him. Mr. Kaminis earned his MBA at the Katz Graduate School of Business at the University of Pittsburgh, and his BA at Temple University in Philadelphia. However, Markos has been studying the stock market since age 13, when he determined his career path.
He made his first investment at age 16, and funded much of his undergraduate education with the proceeds of his investing success. Mr. Kaminis continues to keep busy forecasting the economic path and securities market activity. Markos is considering the eventual start-up a long/short capital appreciation hedge fund. Such a fund would limit risk through beta reduction, using a diversification strategy targeting sector & industry and long & short position inclusion. At the same time, Markos' theoretical fund would seek maximum capital appreciation through the exploitation of Mr. Kaminis' inherent economic & market discernment gift and proven stock selection skills.
Mr. Kaminis also has a team of a select few analysts, technicians, strategists and economists that he has been impressed by over the years, which he expects to tap for the project when the time is right. Mr. Kaminis welcomes your interest in such a potential forward effort, and looks forward to discussing his plans with those appropriate and within legal constraints.
Markos toys with very early stage entrepreneurial efforts in the testing of certain business models, all of which he intends to tie to a planned non-profit project serving the most helpless among us. The tie will be that the businesses will give employment opportunity to individuals who would otherwise have difficulty finding gainful employment. It will house and heal the homeless, ex-convicts, those completing rehabilitation efforts for drug and other addictions, and others in need of help.
Markos is currently Directing the widely syndicated blog he founded, "Wall Street Greek," and is writing for other well-known publications besides advancing several big ideas. Markos' column is syndicated across sites like the Boston Globe, Kiplinger Magazine, UPI and other reputable newspaper and TV websites, as well as private networks, Amazon Kindle, iPhone and more. In the past, he has written for RealMoney.com, Motley Fool and others.
Requests to research specific companies are welcome, as we serve our readers. You may contact us via this blog's contact info. Mr. Kaminis welcomes you to follow him here at Seeking Alpha, where he is proud to be a long-time contributor to this strong team of writers. He considers the Seeking Alpha team and management close friends, and for you, people worth knowing and following. Visit his site: Wall Street Greek (http://www.wallstreetgreek.blogspot.com/)
I like to research companies and determine their intrinsic value, inspired by the likes of Buffet, Graham and Greenwald. I focus on high quality, dividend paying companies. My investment objective is to maintain and grow my capital with protection on the downside (and the upside will take care of itself). The preference is on maintaining a small and focused portfolio of blue chip stocks. Seeking Alpha provides the opportunity to share my research and analysis with others.
I am married to a wonderful, beautiful and intelligent woman and am currently living in Shanghai. I work as an IT manager at a Fortune 500 company.
Michael Ashton has been a recognized leader in developing the U.S. inflation derivatives market. He traded the first interbank U.S. CPI swaps in 2003 and, as a dealer, was a primary liquidity-provider in that market for two large banks. He represented about one-third of interbank swaps volume during his tenures at those firms. He invented and was the sole market-maker for the CME CPI Futures contract. He has written and spoken extensively about the use of inflation-indexed products for hedging real exposures, and has written more broadly in a commentary format about the rates markets and macroeconomy. Mr. Ashton is currently the managing principal at Enduring Investments LLC. His comments on this site and others are not posted in that role, and no opinions of his should be construed to be recommendations of or to reflect the views of his employer. He recently published "What's Wrong With Money? The Biggest Bubble of All."
Our team is based in Chicago and New York with experience at Google, The Wall Street Journal, Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, Tribune and WallStreetView.
YCharts visualizes massive amounts of market information to identify companies with long-term competitive advantages and appropriate valuations. Fundamentals matter and we believe it’s important to understand how companies perform over time and relative to their peers. We cover over 20,000 U.S. & Canadian companies and manage over 40 million investor trends in real-time.
Greentech Media (GTM) produces industry-leading news, research, and conferences in the business-to-business greentech market. Our coverage areas include solar, smart grid, energy efficiency, wind, and other non-incumbent energy markets. GTM Research, the research arm of the company, produces competitive intelligence reports and data subscriptions.
Read additional coverage on the renewable energy market on our website: www.greentechmedia.com, and gain additional insight by signing up for our research services at www.gtmresearch.com.
You can also follow us on twitter: @greentechmedia, or like us on Facebook: facebook.com/greentechmedia.
TechCrunch (http://www.techcrunch.com/), founded on June 11, 2005, is a weblog dedicated to obsessively profiling and reviewing new Internet products and companies. In addition to covering new companies, we profile existing companies that are making an impact (commercial and/or cultural) on the new web space. TechCrunch is co-edited by Michael Arrington and Erick Schonfeld.
Kevin Grewal is the founder, editor and publisher of ETF Tutor as well as serves as the editor at www.SmartStops.net, where he focuses on mitigating risk and implementing exit strategies to preserve equity. Additionally, he is the editor at The ETF Institute, which is the only independent organization providing financial professionals with certification, education, and training pertaining to exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Prior to this, Grewal was an analyst at a small hedge fund where he constructed portfolios dealing with stock lending, exchange-traded funds, arbitrage mechanisms and alternative investments. He is an expert at dealing with ETFs and holds a bachelor's degree from the University of California along with a MBA from the California State University, Fullerton.
Shelly Palmer is Managing Director of Advanced Media Ventures Group LLC and the author of Television Disrupted: The Transition from Network to Networked TV (2006, Focal Press). Shelly is also the president of the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, NY, vice-chairman of The National Academy of Media Arts & Sciences and oversees the Advanced Media Technology Emmy® Awards. You can read Shelly’s blog at ShellyPalmer.com). He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Alan Brochstein, CFA, was the first investment professional to devote himself to sharing his observations about the cannabis industry from an investor's perspective publicly. He runs 420 Investor, a subscription-based due diligence platform for investors interested in the publicly-traded cannabis stocks and is also the founder of New Cannabis Ventures, a content aggregation site focused on investors and entrepreneurs in the cannabis industry.
Alan has worked in the securities industry since 1986, primarily with the responsibility for managing investments in institutional environments until he founded AB Analytical Services in 2007 in order to provide independent research and consulting to registered investment advisors. In addition to advising several different hedge funds and investment managers, including Friedberg Investment Management, where he participated as a member of its investment management committee, Alan was also a senior analyst for the independent research firm Management CV. In 2008, he began providing a first-of-its-kind subscription-based service for individual investors, Invest By Model, which offered two different portfolios that investors could replicate in their own accounts for $20 per month. Alan also offered The Analytical Trader at Marketfy, where he used fundamental and technical analysis in a disciplined process to offer specific trade ideas geared towards swing traders.
Alan launched www.420Investor.com in late 2013 as the premier source of information for "Green Rush" investors seeking to capitalize on the proliferation of legalized medical and recreational cannabis. In March 2014, Alan, who is a member of the National Cannabis Industry Association, began to focus solely on the cannabis sector. He launched www.NewCannabisVentures.com in late 2015.
You can follow Alan on Facebook (www.facebook.com/420investor) or on Twitter (https://twitter.com/Invest420). Alan also moderates a large LinkedIn group focused on the cannabis industry, Cannabis Investors & Entrepreneurs (https://www.linkedin.com/groups/6523904)
I am a long-time individual investor with an engineering degree and an MBA. I worked in aerospace-defense for 15 years and have spent the last decade or so working for a large financial services firm. This academic, work and investing background helps me cast an informed eye on tech stocks, the stock market and the economy and also provides the skills needed to write the software that supports the various parts of the Trade-Radar.com website as well as the Trade-Radar Stock Inspector "Total Stock Analysis" software.
Visit his blog: http://blog.trade-radar.com
Download the Trade-Radar Stock Inspector software: http://trade-radar.com/download/download.html
Visit Trade-Radar AlertHQ for free stock picks: http://trade-radar.com/AlertHQ/AlertHQ.html
James Picerno is a financial journalist who has been writing about finance and investment theory for more than twenty years. He writes for trade magazines read by financial professionals and financial advisers. Over the years, he’s written for the Wall Street Journal, Barron’s, Bloomberg Markets, Mutual Funds, Modern Maturity, Investment Advisor, Reuters, and his popular finance blog, The CapitalSpectator.
Visit: The Capital Spectator (www.capitalspectator.com)
Peter Cooper is the editor and publisher of the ArabianMoney Investment Newsletter and ArabianMoney.net website. He was formerly a partner in AMEInfo.com, sold in a private equity deal in 1996. His book 'Opportunity Dubai: Making a Fortune in the Middle East' was a best seller, and his latest 'Dubai Sabbatical: The Road to $5,000 Gold' is a sign of where he sees the future. Peter is a Dubai resident and contributes columns to many local publications. He was a contemporary of British foreign minister William Hague at Oxford University.