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  • Century Bancorp - 50% Undervalued

    Over the past year, we've become extremely bullish on smaller community and regional banks for a number of reasons. While the markets have rallied and provided excellent gains, shares of these banks have been left out. During this period where their valuations have stagnated, they have gotten to the point where many are now posting record profits - even in the current near zero interest rate environment. As most readers who follow us know, we are guided by insider purchasing patterns. This has served us well through the bull market, and continues to give us solid investments going forward.

    Century Bancorp ($CNBKA) is a small (based on market cap) family founded/operated regional bank based in Massachusetts. It operates 27 branches in the Greater Boston area. It is one of these banks mentioned above that is producing record earnings, yet finds its shares extremely undervalued at this time.

    I could go into all the details of the bank, its history, and operations, but that's simply minutiae that would bore most readers. If you're into that, the company's website provides all of that and more ( My objective is to simply make the case that the shares are extremely undervalued today, we see consistent insider purchasing of shares, and we have every reason to believe that the consistent, steady, measured growth shown historically will continue.

    1. Valuation

    a. Price/Earnings - today, having just posted FY2014 earnings of $3.93/share, at a share price of $39, the P/E is just smidge under 10. Contrast this to what we see in most other regional banks with PE in the 13 to 15 range, and Century is well below that level.

    b. Price/Deposits - when we look at banks, P/D is a favorite ratio we like to look at. Deposits drive assets, and it provides a metric of how much bang you get for your buck. The more deposits a bank has, the more loans it can make, and the more earnings it can drive. With $2.87 billion in deposits and a market cap of about $217 million we have a P/D ratio of 0.076. To gain an understanding of just how out of line this is, most all of the banks on our radar in the community/regional sector have P/D ratios in the 0.10 to 0.20 range. We consider those below 0.13 to be undervalued, in the 0.13 to 0.16 range to reasonably valued, in the 0.17 to 0.19 overvalued, and above 0.19 wildly overvalued. Now, there can always be logical reasons why the ratio would be above 0.19 and not be wildly overvalued - maybe strong earnings as a result of higher margin business the bank does, or paying an oversized dividend. Similarly, a very low P/D below 0.10 can indicate other issues - like low or deteriorating earnings. However, in general, the ratios and ranges we note have served us well. In the case of Century, we see no reasons for the extremely low P/D when taken in conjunction with the growth and record level of earnings.

    2. Earnings/Growth

    Century has posted diluted EPS just above $1.00/share the past two quarters. Being extremely conservative and only applying a 3% growth rate, we see 2015 EPS between $4.10 and $4.20/share - at the low end. For comparison, EPS growth from 2013 to 2014 was closer to 10% rising from $3.61 to $3.93. If we go back to the P/E of 13 to 15 for most similar banks, we get to a share price of $54 to $62 based on our conservative 3% growth.

    3. Tangible Book Value

    Century's TBV is $34.09 up from $31.27 a year earlier. We like seeing a share price close to TBV when we make a bank investment. Like our other metrics, it gives us a sense of the value. With community and regional banks, it serves as a safety net for the investor. Another of our metrics for value is what another bank would pay to acquire. In general, through 2014, we have seen buyouts take place in the range of 1.4 to 1.5 times TBV. So once again, Century shows to be a very good value with shares below $40.

    4. Efficiency Ratio

    For banks, the Efficiency Ratio is an important metric as it is a measure of how tight the banks cost structure is. The lower this ratio, the better as it shows lower cost (i.e. higher operating margins). Century currently has an efficiency ratio of 62%, which is very low and this is down from 63% a year earlier - which is also very low. If you compare with other bank efficiency ratios, you can see very quickly how well run Century is.

    5. Asset Quality

    Century has a very strong asset base. At December 31, 2014, non-performing assets totaled $4.6 million vs. $2.5 million a year earlier, while assets have grown to $3.6 billion from $3.4 billion.

    6. Interest rates

    In general, we like community and regional banks at this time because we know in the future interest rates will rise. Whether that happens at some time during 2015 may be up for debate, but we do not believe that we will continue to see rates near zero for eternity. Most economists are saying we are likely no more than 6 to 9 months away at most from the first rate increase. When interest rates rise, so too do earnings at banks - because their interest rate margin (spread) increases. The fact that these banks are turning in record earnings at this time, when interest rates are still near zero is a testament to how well they are performing.

    7. Insider ownership/purchasing

    Century has a dual class share structure, with 3.6 million Class A shares being publicly traded and 2 million Class B non-public shares which are likely primarily held by the family owners.

    James J. Filler is a 10% owner (of the Class A shares) with just under 400,000 shares. The filing for his most recent purchase of shares on March 4 is here:

    Mr. Filler has been steadily buying up Century shares, acquiring an additional 40,000 shares over the past 6 months. He is a director at ServisFirst Bancshares ($SFBS) and holds over 600,000 shares valued at over $20 million. The ServisFirst website indicates his career was in metals and recycling, and today he is just a private investor. Checking the residential address on the Form 4, Mr. Filler's 20,000 square foot mansion shows he's done quite well.


    Based on a number of metrics that we track for community/regional banks, Century is significantly undervalued at this time. The recent/frequent purchases by James Filler additionally raises our level of interest. Conservatively, based on conservative multiples, we believe shares would be appropriately valued at something closer to $60/share as opposed to the $39 they fetch today.

    Note, that there are only 3.6 million Class A shares outstanding, and 2.4 million in the float. On an average day, 2500 shares will trade and the bid/ask spread is generally between 25 and 50 cents. If you intend to purchase shares, be prepared to either wait a while (possibly days) to get your bid filled or pay a bit more and buy at the ask. Under no circumstances should a market order be placed - only limit orders should be used on both the buy side and the sell side.

    Mar 05 11:21 AM | Link | Comment!
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