Undergraduate degree from U. of Pennsylvania in biology although I did take too semesters of economics at the Wharton School. M.D. from U. of Pittsburgh. Studied rheumatology at Wake Forest U. where I remained on the faculty for 16 years with interests in basic research on the immune system and also clinical research. I then went into private practice and I retired six years ago. I began investing in the early seventy's as a value investor given that my late wife was Ben Graham's niece. After the March '09 melt down I started trading, but by the summer I had become primarily a fixed income investor.