Six-time CEO followed by successful strategy and executive-team-performance-improvement consulting business. Semi-retired (not working full time but serve on 2 corporate Boards) and re-balancing my portfolio to dividend growth. Objective is to get 5% from portfolio every year - 3.5 points from dividends and 1.5 points from capital gains. Prefer higher DGR to higher yield, but need about 3% yield on portfolio. "...research revealed some surprising results. Over any longer period, say five to ten years, the companies with the lowest dividend yields and the highest consistent dividend growth were the top performers." Divs should be from companies whose long term history is raising divs faster than inflation. Therefore, over time the 1.5 points from stock sales should diminish to $ zero. The overall portfolio should have 3 buckets of roughly equal proportion: A. 2 to 3% yielders with high DGR (>10% over at least 10 + years - stocks most often come from Consumer Cyclical, Tech, and Industrial sectors) B. stocks which have a much higher than average dividend yield, say 4 to 6%,combined with dividend growth at 6 to 8%/yr over 5 + years. Portfolio B stocks are mostly filled with Utilities, Telecommunications, REITs, and Energy stocks. C. very undervalued stocks which combine a higher than average dividend yield 3 to 4 % with at least a dgr no less than 6%. These stocks don't come from specific sectors because the reasons for undervaluation are company/industry specific headwinds or uncertainties. % needed from sales equals about 1% of portfolio. Anticipating a 6 to 8%/yr long term increase in portfolio value, not counting divs, I expect portfolio value to increase and therefore provide a necessary cushion to achieving planning objectives. Stock prices follow earnings in the long term. Therefore, stock prices should increase at roughly the DGR and vice versa. So, primary focus should be on estimated 5 and 1 year EPS growth, followed by 10, 5,3 and 1 year DGR histories. Be mostly a buyer of high quality dividend stocks, with solid competitive advantages. My holding period is forever, as long as the dividend is at least maintained. But, I do a thorough review every quarter to see if some stocks can be replaced with higher quality without sacrificing yield. Quality in this case means higher: estimated 5 year EPS growth; 10, 5, 3 and 1 year DGR; better Graham; or lower payout ratio. This review causes a turnover of 1 to 2 stocks per quarter. I Concentrate efforts on stocks which grow earnings and dividends and which provide outstanding total returns over time. For the most part, this means confining choices to the CCC list for security of dividends continuing and growing, and to limit downside swings in portfolio value. Diversify across sectors and geographic locations. Don’t buy illiquid stocks. CCC filters: 1. Est 5 year growth > 8 to 10% 2. NY growth > 8 to 10% 3. 5 yr DGR > 8 % 4. 1 yr DGR > 8% 5. D/E 3%), low payout stocks (
Robert Hauver publishes The Double Dividend Stock Alert, a monthly investment newsletter that features the best dividend stocks and option selling strategies for income investors.
TipRanks rates DoubleDividendStocks in the Top 25 of all financial bloggers.
The https://www.DoubleDividendStocks.com website also features High Dividend Stocks By Sector Tables, and Covered Calls & Cash Secured Puts Tables, a Dividend Stocks blog, and a a Stock Market News & Data page. 845-225-4094
Individual investor focused upon a limited number of diversified stocks. Seeks stocks selling below fair value; favors dividend growth. Advocates fundamental investment analysis, supplemented by the technical charts. Options strategies primarily employed to generate additional income or hedge risk.
We have over 60 years of investment analysis experience. We have published investment research from the perspective of the buy side and the sell side. Our work has been used by institutions managing over $1 trillion in aggregate. We have published reports from both the long and short perspective and have worked with the largest short selling mutual fund in the world. We are long term value investors. It is our belief that, contrary to popular opinion, most individual investors and patient professional investors have the best opportunity since the beginning of our investment career to beat institutional and mutual fund managers in terms of risk adjusted performance. The "Information Arbitrage" advantage institutional investors have had is mostly eliminated, while the individual investor still can maintain an edge with "Time Arbitrage". Our goal is to provide institutional quality buy side articles that educate and stimulate investors in the hope of improving their returns. We also are willing to mentor young analysis who wish to improve their analytical skills.
David Stockman is the ultimate Washington insider turned iconoclast. He began his career in Washington as a young man and quickly rose through the ranks of the Republican Party to become the Director of the Office of Management and Budget under President Ronald Reagan. After leaving the White House, Stockman had a 20-year career on Wall Street.
At the podium, Stockman’s expertise and experience cannot be matched, and he has a reputation for zesty financial straight talk. Defying right- and left-wing boxes, his latest book catalogues both the corrupters and defenders of sound money, fiscal rectitude, and free markets. Stockman discusses the forces that have left the public sector teetering on the edge of political dysfunction and fiscal collapse and have caused America’s financial system to morph into an unstable, bubble-prone gambling arena that undermines capitalist prosperity and showers speculators with vast windfall gains.
Stockman’s career in Washington began in 1970, when he served as a special assistant to U.S. Representative, John Anderson of Illinois. From 1972 to 1975, he was executive director of the U.S. House of Representatives Republican Conference. Stockman was elected as a Michigan Congressman in 1976 and held the position until his resignation in January 1981.
He then became Director of the Office of Management and Budget under President Ronald Reagan, serving from 1981 until August 1985. Stockman was the youngest cabinet member in the 20th century. Although only in his early 30s, Stockman became well known to the public during this time concerning the role of the federal government in American society.
After resigning from his position as Director of the OMB, Stockman wrote a best-selling book, The Triumph of Politics: Why the Reagan Revolution Failed (1986). The book was Stockman’s frontline report of the miscalculations, manipulations, and political intrigues that led to the failure of the Reagan Revolution. A major publishing event and New York Times bestseller in its day, The Triumph of Politics is still startlingly relevant to the conduct of Washington politics today.
After leaving government, Stockman joined Wall Street investment bank Salomon Bros. He later became one of the original partners at New York-based private equity firm, The Blackstone Group. Stockman left Blackstone in 1999 to start his own private equity fund based in Greenwich, Connecticut.
In his newest New York Times best-seller, The Great Deformation: The Corruption of Capitalism in America (2013), Stockman lays out how the U.S. has devolved from a free market economy into one fatally deformed by Washington’s endless fiscal largesse, K-street lobbies and Fed sponsored bailouts and printing press money.
Stockman was born in Ft. Hood, Texas. He received his B.A. from Michigan State University and pursued graduate studies at Harvard Divinity School.
He lives in Greenwich, Connecticut, with his wife Jennifer Blei Stockman. They have two daughters, Rachel and Victoria.
Born June 27th 1935 in Vienna, Austria. The youngest singer in my family which sang with the von Trapp singers, of which the film Sound of Music was based. Maria (played by Julie Andrew) was actually my nanny before she married Capt von Trapp (played by Christopher Plumber) who was not in the navy of Austria since Austria, being a land locked country, had no navy.
The little boy "Kurt" in the film was actually me. My mom never sued Twentieth Century Fox for using our story without receiving payment. (the von Trapps never went over the Alps to Switzerland.. that was my family and me...the captain and his singing family went to Italy and from there came to America via London)
When arriving in USA we moved to Arlington VT. where my neighbor was Norman Rockwell. My mom disallowed me from sitting for him despite frequent invitations to do so. Second immortality lost. :-)
Graduated with honors(Wall Street Journal award) from Lafayette College in 1957. After attending med school became ER physician in Conn. hospital, on the night shift. Had a seat on the NYSE at the same time and commuted from the hospital to Wall Street daily. After a few years of this, left medicine to stay with the NYSE Stock exchange.
Was also partner with Leon Cooperman in a NYSE member firm in late sixties. Carl Ichan and other notables of Wall Street are on best friends list..
Traded money for many well known names on the street such as Peter Kellogg of Spear Leeds and Kellogg, etc.
Am only surviving founder of the CBOE opened In early 70's. Names of "stripp, strapp, iron condor, condor, straddle, strangle" were all names that were thought up and first used by me. Traded options long before the CBOE was founded.
Traded on the CBOE under acronym PPP (known as Peter Paul) till 1988.
Started a Classic Jaguar restoration company in 1988 till 2011.
Went back to trading my own account, off floor in 2008.
60 years trading experience. Have been an avid technician the entire 60 years. We use fundamentals, PE ratios, overall market conditions, Fibonacci retracements, Elliott Wave theory, my own mathematical formulas as well as my own technical chart work (5 minute, daily, weekly as well as yearly) charts in analyzing and preparing recommendations to buy sell or hold.
ALL OUR ARTICLES are and will contain material discussion on timing and will be geared for the short term trader as well as the long term investor. I am on my computers, monitoring live charts and financial news on a minute to minute basis every trading day, from pre-market trading opening to after-market trades and the final closing.
Unlike Seeking Alpha articles from other contributors, all our articles will be prepared for maximum gain and minimum loss by supplying sell and buy stop recommendations along with the original recommendation. These will be updated as necessary over future time intervals. All will be published and added to all our recommendations on an "as needed" basis as often as market forces cause the need for such alterations. The use of option strategies as adjuncts or substitutions for stock will also be used and discussed as well as updated as necessary, so the investor taking our advise will never be out there "on his own" after acting on our initial recommendation from Doc's Trading"..
Readers may contact me directly at: email@example.com or (cell)928 951 4779
F.A.S.T. Graphs™ is a powerful research tool providing “essential fundamentals at a glance” on over 17,000 symbols. F.A.S.T. Graphs™ empowers the user to research stocks deeper and faster by allowing them to exploit the undeniable relationship and functional correlation between long-term earnings growth and market price. Warren Buffett, the greatest capital allocator of all time, said; “there are only two things that investor needs to know; how to value a company and how to think about stock prices.” With the F.A.S.T. Graphs™ at their disposal, users are able to perform both of these critical tasks… FAST.
F.A.S.T. is an acronym for Fundamentals Analyzer Software Tool that takes all the hours of manual graphing of business fundamentals and reduces it to seconds, giving you critical information in an instant. With one glance you know a lot about the business you are graphing and its past, present and future value. F.A.S.T. Graphs™ should be the first step in every research project. Each graph is worth 1,000 words in describing a company’s growth, consistency and valuation.
Harry studied economics in college in the ’70s, but found it vague and inconclusive. He became so disillusioned by the state of his chosen profession that he turned his back on it. Instead, he threw himself into the burgeoning New Science of Finance where identifying and studying demographic, technological, consumer and many, many other trends empowered him to forecast economic changes.
Since then, he’s spoken to executives, financial advisors and investors around the world. He’s appeared on “Good Morning America,” PBS, CNBC and CNN/FN. He’s been featured in Barron’s, Investor’s Business Daily, Entrepreneur, Fortune, Success, U.S. News and World Report, Business Week, The Wall Street Journal, American Demographics and Omni. He is a regular guest on Fox Business’s “America’s Nightly Scorecard.”
Harry has written numerous books over the years. In his book The Great Boom Ahead, published in 1992, he stood virtually alone in accurately forecasting the unanticipated “Boom” of the 1990s. That same year he authored two consecutive best sellers: The Roaring 2000s and The Roaring 2000s Investor (Simon and Schuster). In The Next Great Bubble Boom, he offered a comprehensive forecast for the following two decades.
In The Great Depression Ahead, he outlined how the next great downturn is likely to unfold in three stages, with an interim boom stage between 2012 and 2017 before the long-term slowdown finally turns into the next global boom in the early 2020s.
In The Great Crash Ahead, he outlines how this next great crash is likely to unfold in the coming months. He explains why there is nothing the government can do to protect us as deflation takes hold of the economy.
Harry’s latest book, The Demographic Cliff, How to Survive and Prosper During the Great Deflation of 2014–2019, shows why we’re facing a “great deflation” after five years of stimulus — and what to do about it now.
Today, he uses the research he developed from years of hands-on business experience to offer readers a positive, easy-to-understand view of the economic future.
Harry got his MBA from Harvard Business School, where he was a Baker Scholar and was elected to the Century Club for leadership excellence.
Dale Roberts is an Investment Funds Associate with Tangerine Investment Funds Limited, a subsidiary of Tangerine Bank wholly owned by Scotiabank. My articles are for information purposes only and do not constitute investment advice or an offer or the solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any securities. These articles are my personal opinion and are not those of Tangerine Bank or its subsidiaries. Remember past performance is not guaranteed and may not be repeated. Investment strategies are not suitable for everyone and you should always conduct your own research or speak to a financial advisor.
A lifelong student of the markets, speculator, and investor, decades of experience have forged Adam into a hardcore contrarian. He believes in buying low when others are afraid, then later selling high when others are brave. He founded the financial-market research company Zeal LLC, and continues to write acclaimed weekly and monthly subscription newsletters.
Gold Stock Trades Editor Jeb Handwerger is a highly sought-after stock analyst syndicated internationally and known throughout the financial industry for his accurate and timely analysis of the equities markets, particularly the metals and mining sector. Subscribe to his FREE Newsletter right now at: http://goldstocktrades.com.
Mid Market M&A consultant specializing in technology and energy industries. Individual Investor for over 25 years. Growth oriented investments primarily in market leaders and technology leaders. Investment philosophy is long term buy and hold with average holding time of several years.
I have a keen sense of cutting through management and Investment banker commentary and seeing true value of companies. A lot of my views tend to be controversial for that reason but at the same time remarkably accurate.
To get a feel for my writing, readers can puruse a few of my recent against the grain calls:- with extremely high success rates.
Chris Ciovacco is the founder and CEO of Ciovacco Capital Management (CCM), an independent money management firm serving individual investors nationwide. The thoroughly researched and backtested CCM Market Model answers these important questions: (1) How much should we allocate to risk assets?, (2) How much should we allocate to conservative assets?, (3) What are the most attractive risk assets?, and (4) What are the most attractive conservative assets?
Chris is an expert in identifying the best ETFs from a wide variety of asset classes, including stocks, bonds, commodities, and precious metals. The CCM Market Model compares over 130 different ETFs to identify the most attractive risk-reward opportunities.
Chris graduated summa cum laude from The Georgia Institute of Technology with a co-operative degree in Industrial and Systems Engineering. Prior to founding Ciovacco Capital Management in 1999, Mr. Ciovacco worked as a Financial Advisor for Morgan Stanley in Atlanta for five years earning a strong reputation for his independent research and high integrity. While at Georgia Tech, he gained valuable experience working as a co-op for IBM (1985-1990). During his time with Morgan Stanley, Chris received extensive training which included extended stays in NYC at the World Trade Center.
His areas of expertise include technical analysis and market model development. CCM’s popular weekly technical analysis videos on YouTube have been viewed over 700,000 times. Chris’ years of experience and research led to the creation of the thoroughly backtested CCM Market Model, which serves as the foundation for the management of separate accounts for individuals and businesses.
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Dave Fish is Executive Editor for The Moneypaper and co-manager (since 1999) of the MP 63 Fund (Symbol: DRIPX), a fund that invests exclusively in companies that offer Direct Investment (or Dividend Reinvestment) Plans. He is also the author of the U.S. Dividend Champions spreadsheet (and PDF), which is updated at the end of each month...and lists companies that have increased their dividend payout for at least 25 consecutive years. (Separate tabs list "Contenders" that have increased their payouts for 10-24 years and "Challengers" that have increased their payouts for 5-9 years.) http://dripinvesting.org/Tools/Tools.asp
I'm the lead investment research analyst for income and dividend investing at Investors Alley, an independent investment research service. My primary role is editor of several investment advisories bringing deep dive research and actionable income and dividend investment recommendations to investors. These advisories include The Dividend Hunter, 30 Day Dividends, and Tax-Smart Income Hunter.
Prior to joining Investors Alley, I was a stock broker, a Certified Financial Planner, and an F-16 fighter pilot and flight instructor with the United States Air Force. In addition to my primary duty of flying the F-16 to defend our nation's skies I was an instructor in the F-16 Flying Falcon as well as the OV-10 Bronco. During my time in the service I was stationed at various military locations in including Osan AB, Korea, Patrick AFB, Florida, and Nellis AFB in Las Vegas. I graduated from the United States Air Force Academy with a degree in mathematics.
It was during those years when I was a Certified Financial Planner and helping families and individuals plan their finances and make wise investment decisions that found my second passion in life: investment research. (Flying was and still is my first.)
My area of specialty is evaluating income generating investments to find the combination of sustainable and growing dividends, special dividend opportunities, and share price appreciation driven by management's commitment to dividend growth. I have a particular emphasis on master limited partnerships, business development corporations, and real estate investment trusts.
I've previously written for USA Today, The Motley Fool, eHow, SFGate, Chron.com, Wikinvest.com, Moneynews.com, iStockAnalyst, among others, and have contributed vast firsthand research to a major provider of data on master limited partnerships, another area of extreme interest to me. Along with my duties with Investors Alley I'm a regular contributor to Seeking Alpha.
In addition to the articles posted here on Seeking Alpha you can find my investment analysis on the Investors Alley website and the weekly newsletter, The Market Cap.
Over 30 years of investing in individual stocks. Extensive business experience with small to mid-size companies, including as CEO. Many hundreds of blog posts on financial and economic matters since 2008. Focus on value with catalysts for upside price action. Background as a physician and pharmaceutical inventor and entrepreneur, however focus now is global and involves almost all economic categories.
Investor’s Business Daily wrote that “Simon says and the market is playing along.” Unfortunately that’s not always the case, but Simon’s common sense and often contrarian market analysis has pinpointed many major turning points over the years. He’s been invited as guest on CNBC, FOX News, Channel 8 and his analysis has been published in the Wall Street Journal, Investor’s Business Daily, USA Today, Nasdaq.com, Schwab.com, Scottrade.com, Yahoo!Finance, Google Finance, and other outlets. iSPYETF.com is the home of Simon’s thoughts and forecasts.
I am a medical professional, but I have been studying investing for many years so that I can control my own portfolio. DGI seems to be the best way for me to invest for my retirement while being able to sleep at night.
I have also been successfully trading cash secured puts for extra income. I share my experience on my websites, Tradingcsps.com and my blog Tradingputs.com.
David White is a software/firmware/marketing professional and a long time investor. He has worked in the networking field, the semiconductor equipment field, the mainframe computer field, and the pharmaceutical/scientific instrumentation field. He has bachelor's degrees in bioresource sciences and biochemistry from U.C. Berkeley. He is a former Ph.D. student in biochemistry. He has done significant graduate work in EECS and business at Stanford (through SITN) and UC Santa Cruz. He was awarded a Certificate in Advanced Software Systems (about 1/3 of an MS in EECS) by the Stanford Computer Science Department. He also took most of Stanford's undergraduate Computer Science curriculum.
Founder of Disruptive Tech Research – a technology research and advisory firm serving the investment management community.
We provide registered investment professionals and qualified firms with independent, targeted research to support the generation of investment ideas.
We focus on patent-filing activity to identify the most promising disruptive technology trends early. Then, we employ an original, bottom-up fundamental research approach to uncover micro- and small-cap ideas that are underfollowed, underappreciated and undervalued.
Our mission is to provide clients with differentiated, actionable and thorough fundamental research at a cost effective price.
We’re 100% independent. That means absolutely no pay-to-play arrangements, no hidden agendas and no hype. Just solid research. And yes, we eat our own cooking.
I started my investment career at Morgan Stanley, where I helped direct over $1 billion in in institutional capital. After growing bored with the monotony of asset allocation studies, investment policy statements, manager searches and evaluations, and Retirement Plan Service Provider RFPs (among other things), I left and co-founded Wall Street Daily, which quickly became one of the web’s largest financial publishers with a daily circulation of more than 700,000 readers.
In 2014, I founded Disruptive Tech Research to pursue my investing passion, and fill the void in the market for high-quality, 100% independent research on disruptive technologies.
I have been fortunate to appear regularly on CNBC’s Closing Bell, as well as be mentioned in other media outlets, including in The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, Morningstar and MarketWatch. I earned my MBA from the Crummer Graduate School of Business at Rollins College, which is also where I met my beautiful wife.
Pro Deo, Pro Familia, Pro Patria
George Spritzer, CFA is a registered investment advisor at Southland Investments and specializes in managing closed-end funds for individuals.
George uses the following investment strategies:1) Opportunistic Closed-end fund investing: Buy CEFs at larger than normal discounts to NAV and sell them when the discounts narrow. 2) Exploit special situations: tender offers, fund terminations, fund activism, rights offerings etc.
John Cole Scott is Chief Investment Officer at the firm and holds the Series 66 FINRA Licenses. In 2002 he earned the Certified Fund Specialist designation (CFS). For over 15 years John has specialized in closed-end fund/BDC research, analysis and trading.
He has been quoted or interviewed by Bloomberg, SmartMoney, Investment News, The Street, Morningstar, Registered Rep, Reuters, Bond Buyer, Better Investing, USA Today and The Richmond Times Dispatch and published in SR Consultant. He has presented at conferences or events in Atlanta, GA, Charlotte, NC, Boca Raton, FL, Chicago, IL, Denver, CO, Houston, TX, Miami, FL, Minneapolis, MN, Naples, FL, Newark, NJ, Richmond, VA, New York, NY, San Francisco, CA, Tampa, FL and Washington DC including several keynote addresses.
In April 2008 John founded CEFA's Closed-End Fund Universe, a comprehensive weekly data service covering the closed-end fund industry currently with 185+ data points per traditional CEF and 115+ per Business Development Companies (BDCs). We launched BDCUniverse.net in August 2015 as the first BDC Research website covering all public BDCs. In November 2008 he founded "The CEF Network" on LinkedIN with 1375+ members.
John is a long time member and current Board Member of The Richmond Association for Business Economics (RABE) and serves on the Investment and Standing Committee for The New York State Society of The Cincinnati. He can be reached via: firstname.lastname@example.org or (804) 288-2482.
I am a simple individual investor who believes that the playing field is level, but may require active management of one's holdings.
I've devised a series of steps that constitute a highly defined covered option strategy that most anyone can follow and that I've described in Option to Profit (2011).
Having retired from a career in Pediatric Dentistry, approximately 10 years ahead of schedule, after spending the previous 10 years working just 2 days each week, I now spend my time trading and alerting others of trading opportunities in large cap positions through the Option to Profit subscription service, a premium subscription service that provides actionable Trading Alerts via text messaging or e-mail at www.optiontoprofit.com. as well as a Web site access only subscription plan.
The Option to Profit subscription service is now in its 4th year.
Now, the Web Access subscription plan is available through Seeking Alpha's "Marketplace." A listing of those articles can be found at https://seekingalpha.com/account/research/subscribe?slug=george-acs
The subscription through Seeking Alpha also includes access to the full Option to Profit web mirror site at http://sa.optiontoprofit.com.
I want you to join me in making your stock portfolio improve the quality of your life. Whatever stage of life you are in, you can make your stocks improve that quality by putting them to work for you.
The Parsimony community is made up of thousands of do-it-yourself dividend and income investors working toward one common goal...generating consistent income!
Our strategy is simple:1. Buy great dividend stocks at reasonable prices.2. Enhance income with conservative option strategies.3. Manage risk through diversification and exit strategies.
Our research (which includes dividend stock rankings, single stock Buy Zone reports, stock screens, and model portfolios) will give you all the tools you need to build and monitor your own DIY Dividend Portfolio and super charge that portfolio with conservative option strategies (cover calls and cash-secured puts).
For more information about our subscription services click the links below:
- DIY Dividend Portfolio
- Triple Income Portfolio (stocks + options)
Gary A. Gordon, MS, CFP® is the president of Pacific Park Financial, Inc., a Registered Investment Adviser with the SEC. He has more than 25 years of experience as a personal coach in “money matters,” including risk assessment, small business development and portfolio management.
Gary is often asked to consult as an educator. He has taught financial concepts in Mexico, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and the United States.
As a Certified Financial Planner™ (CFP®), Gary has distinguished himself as a reputable and trusted investor advocate. He writes commentary for ETF Expert, Seeking Alpha and The Street. Gary’s participation on local and national radio has spanned more than a decade, and he currently hosts the ETF Expert Show.
Gary is a “good sport” when his wife, Denise, beats him at Scrabble. Most of all, Gary takes special pride in a not-so-little energizer… his 19-year old daughter, Wei Elizabeth Gordon.
David Zanoni is ranked in the top 1% of blogging analysts on Tipranks.com for performance and accuracy. He focuses on growth & momentum stocks that are reasonably priced and likely to outperform the market over the long-term. David is a graduate of Rutgers University with a B.S. in Management. He is an independent long term investor of quality stocks and uses options for strategy. David believes in the power of innovation, capitalism, and the characteristics of the American spirit: intellect, fortitude, and adaptability to lead our country and the world to growing prosperity. His wants to help make people money by investing in high-quality growth stocks.
I occasionally perform research when weighing investment decisions. I share some of this research here.
This is not personal financial advice. I don't know your individual circumstances or risk tolerance.
Also, nothing I publish is a guarantee. I cannot tell the future and so I will often be wrong. Even some of the historical analysis I conduct may contain errors.