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  • Organized Crime and the Mafia

    Organized crime is defined as the criminal activity performed by an extensive group of proficient criminals that depend on illegal activities to earn huge amounts of monetary profit. The financial profit gained through such illegal activities is called black money. The actions of such organizations are synchronized and controlled by a centralized syndicate.

    The term Mafia is used for describing various organizations that are responsible for coordinating or performing various types of organized criminal activities . In the United States , the Mafia is also known as the "Mob". The Sicilian Mafia, which was the first mafia to come into existence, is also known as "La Cosa Nostra". An individual working for the Mafia is called a "Mafioso".

    The " Mafia" also exist in other parts of the world and are known as Russian Mafia, Albanian Mafia, Serbian Mafia etc based on their location. Many organizations similar to the mafia exist but are known by different names. Some of them are listed below:

    • Irish Mob

    • Chinese Triads

    • Japanese Yakuza

    • Neapolitan Camorra

    • Unione Corse

    The Mafia is a collection of several criminal organizations and is controlled just like a business and has a hierarchical structure.

    Let us take a small peak into this hierarchy:

    • At the bottom of this hierarchy are the "soldiers" or "thugs". They take care of the less important work like extortion of money.

    • Above the soldiers are "enforcers". They mostly play the part of being bodyguards who protect the establishments and they also hire other criminals to carry out some of the odd jobs. These enforcers also possess their own financial establishments.

    • The "commissioners" come on top of the enforcers. These commissioners handle or control an entire city or a more widespread area.

    • Next in the mafia is "The boss". The bosses control an individual organization out of the multiple organizations in a mafia.

    • At the top of the entire pyramid structure is "The Godfather". The word of the Godfather is the final word and is followed by the entire chain below.

    The multiple organizations that exist in a "mafia" specialize in particular types of crime. Mafia is responsible for crimes like narcotics trafficking or smuggling, gambling, extortion, prostitution and also in hideous crimes like murders or assassinations as well as kidnappings. The organizations in the mafia that specialized in assassinations and killed anyone when ordered to became infamously known as "Murders Inc" among the media.

    The mafia has not seized being in existence since long and with the passage of time they have just kept on growing in numbers and committing organized crimes.


    Jan 01 12:19 PM | Link | Comment!
  • Avoid Rape

    Know the Facts About Rape

    Rape is a violent crime - a hostile attack - an attempt to hurt and humiliate. It is NOT the result of "uncontrolled passions." Rape can happen to anyone. Students, working women, wives, mothers, children, grandmothers, and even males are the victims of rape.
    Rape can occur anywhere and at any time, in public or in your own home, day or night. Rapists are not necessarily strangers. In fact, in over one-third of reported cases, the rapist is an acquaintance, neighbor, friend or relative of the victim. Rape is one of the most underreported crimes. The majority of rapists continue until caught. So report any kind of sexual assault.

    Acquaintance Rape
    What is Acquaintance Rape?
    Acquaintance rape is the sexual assault of a victim who is in some way acquainted with the suspect. It could be a coworker, acquaintance, neighbor, or even a family member. Often women feel there is no reason to fear him. More than 40% of all rapists know or are acquainted with their victims. About 25% of all rapes occur in the victim's home. Many women do not report these rapes because they are frightened, embarrassed, or the assault did not fit the typical rape scenario. Some women are confused about what rape really is.
    Rape is a violent act of forced intercourse, not sex, committed against a woman's will. It is committed to control and humiliate. It is not necessarily a sexually motivated crime. The attacker's pattern ranges from a surprise attack to attack after initial consent by the victim who changes her mind.


    What women have to remember is that they don't cause rape. Women have the right to decide, based on their own values, when they will have sexual intercourse. It is not the woman's problem; it is the man's problem. It's important that women understand some of the myths surrounding rape, strategies to avoid rape, and necessary steps to take if attacked.

    What to do to Help Prevent Acquaintance Rape
    Know your date. When a man asks you out, even if he seems nice, agree to meet at a neutral public location. Check with your friends about him, and also tell a friend where you are meeting him.
    Inform your date. Make him aware that your family or friends know your whereabouts and the time you plan to be home.
    Avoid isolated areas. Go out with other couples, or stay in public places. If you become uncomfortable with your date, help is nearby.
    Make your feelings clear. Let him know early on if you don't intend to engage in sexual activity. Some men have the misconception that women secretly want sex, and that they play hard to get. Make sure he understands "no" means no.
    Watch for signs. Be concerned if your date orders you around, becomes irritated if you talk to others, makes decisions without regard for you, or if his questions become personal or sexual.
    Trust your feelings. If something feels wrong, it probably is. Get to a safe place, and call a friend or relative.
    Be alert for possible use of "date rape drugs" such as Rohypnol, which is illegal in the United States. Someone can slip it into a drink. It causes drowsiness, a loss of coordination, dizziness and memory loss. Never take drinks from other people and don't leave your drink unattended.
    Jan 01 12:14 PM | Link | Comment!
  • Effects of Global Warming on Health

    A report of the effects of global warming on health published by WHO, has estimated around one million fifty thousand deaths every year due to global warming. Further it declared that each year five million people are suffering from health problems and diseases caused for this global warming. The rising concern over this matter has led many scientists and researchers to take a deeper look and prepare a plan to save human civilization from this onslaught.

    Global warming has caused changes in temperature, ocean current flow, sea level, ecosystem, economy, agriculture, industry, settlements and related to all these - the health and living. Warmer world has created congenial atmosphere for the breeding and life expanse of various virus, bacteria and carriers of infectious diseases. Few evidences of global warming leaving negative effects on human health are -

    - The vectors distribution of infectious diseases have been altered for global warming.

    - Heat wave resulted for global warming are causing deaths.

    - The seasonal distribution of few species of allergenic pollen have been altered for global warming.

    - Various extreme conditions of global warming like droughts, heat and cold wave, storm, flood, fire will increase the death tolls as well as injuries and diseases.

    - Malnutrition and disordered development of children are few long term results of global warming.

    - Global warming will cause increase of malaria, diarrhea, cholera, dengue, encephalitis and other diseases.

    - There will be constant rising rate of mortality due to ground level ozone related diseases as well as high cardio respiratory morbidity for global warming.

    Thus global warming will affect human health in two major ways - with extreme weather condition and with rising infectious diseases. IPCC in a study of one of the most global warming affected area of Illionis, Chicago, has provided an apprehensive report that by 2020 extreme climate condition like heat wave will raise the climate average deaths to 400 and to 497 by 2050 from the present average of 191. European heat wave of 2003 is an example of its severity. Heat waves will even cause cardio respiratory complications resulting to high rate of deaths.

    The results of ill health due to global warming and infectious diseases are already evident. Houston as well as many tropical countries are experiencing frequent outbreak of malaria, dengue and other encephalitis diseases. Even colder regions like Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Queens are severely suffering from malaria since 1990 as a result of global warming. McAllen of Texas also suffered a dengue epidemic in 1995. Florida, New Oreleans, Arizona, Mississippi, Texas, Colorado, and California - all are experiencing encephalitis epidemic for global warming since 1987. According to IPCC, 65% of world population will suffer from high risk of infectious diseases in near future. The risk itself will be increased by 20%, only as a result of global warming.

    Facing such an impending calamity due to global warming, the requirement of proper planning and organized adaptation to new and changing condition has received a new dimension. Along with urgent and basic adaptation practices to fight the immediate effects, a longer planning and elaborate gradual methodology are also necessary to address the severity of future conditions resulted from global warming. A participatory approach to the holistic development of human health is expected to sober down the effects of global warming on health to some extent.


    Jan 01 12:09 PM | Link | Comment!
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