Rating Agency Default Methodologies Make Internal Research More Important To Municipal Investing

by: Invesco US


The municipal bond market historically has enjoyed extremely low default rates, but Invesco Fixed Income believes a modest uptick may be on the horizon.

The recent large default in Puerto Rico, combined with the rising tide of Chapter 9 bankruptcies among municipalities, will likely cast the spotlight on reports that detail municipal default rates.

Negative investor reaction to a rise in default rates may cause negative fallout in the municipal market, but also potential opportunities, in our view.

Negative headlines could create investment opportunities

By Eric Nelmark, Senior Analyst

A small increase in the number of large municipality defaults over the last seven years has raised questions about how distressed municipalities may view and treat their various contractual obligations going forward. In response, some investors have increased their focus on the potential default risk found within the municipal bond market.

These investors may look to credit rating agencies, such as Standard and Poor's (S&P) or Moody's, who have conducted and published their own municipal default studies since 2008, for insight about distressed municipalities. These studies calculate the ratio of defaulted obligors in any given year versus the total obligors that the agency rates over the same time period. Using this method, default rates over any given period are extremely low - less than .01% overall.1

However, such reports only measure the rated obligors of each agency and tend to understate the municipal market's true default rate, in our view. In reality, there are approximately 44,000 municipal issuers and hundreds of thousands of individual obligors found within the municipal market.2 Many of these issuers are non-rated and tend to be risker credits. This type of issuer would not be captured by the commonly used studies.

A better way to measure default rates, we believe, is to use the total par value defaulted within the market versus the total par value of the market. Strategy, research and advisory firm Municipal Market Advisors (MMA) uses this broad approach, and expands the definition of "default" to include various characteristics of distress. Using MMA's calculation of total distressed par value, we estimate a higher overall default rate of approximately 1.6%.3 While this number is still very low, we believe it provides a more realistic view of the total distress found within the municipal market.

Implications for bond investors

In the foreseeable future, we may see rating agency default statistics rise, albeit only incrementally, as more economically distressed municipalities seek debt reduction through Chapter 9 bankruptcy. If the number of municipality defaults continues to increase, these types of obligors are likely to be found within a rating agency's universe of securities and these events would eventually work their way into the various published default studies.

Currently, the Chapter 9 bankruptcy procedure is not authorized in all U.S. states, but more politicians are beginning to view Chapter 9 as a tool that can provide debt relief for distressed municipalities. Factors such as an increase in the number of states authorizing Chapter 9 bankruptcy, published default rates incrementally rising or the more frequent occurrence of high profile municipality defaults may surprise some market participants. Negative investor reactions to these types of headlines could also lead to opportunity, in our view.

Our view and approach to municipal default risk

We believe negative, broad-brush reactions to the types of negative headlines mentioned above may result in some fundamentally sound credits being unfairly punished thereby providing attractive investment opportunities within the municipal bond market. We stand ready to capitalize on such opportunities if they arise.

The Invesco Fixed Income Municipal team takes a comprehensive view of municipal default risk, as we assume a higher baseline rate of municipal default than perhaps other market participants. We continually monitor prevailing developments around distressed issuers. Invesco's municipal research process is designed to help detect declining credit trends and ultimately aims to avoid defaults. Our experienced municipal portfolio management and research team has many tools at its disposal to maximize recovery, should a default situation occur.


  1. Standard and Poor's, Moody's Investors Service, July 17, 2015.
  2. US Securities and Exchange Commission, July 31, 2012, Invesco, July 20, 2015.
  3. MMA, Invesco, July 17, 2015.

Read more expert views on fixed-income investments.

Important information

Municipal securities are subject to the risk that legislative or economic conditions could affect an issuer's ability to make payments of principal and/ or interest.

Fixed-income investments are subject to credit risk of the issuer and the effects of changing interest rates. Interest rate risk refers to the risk that bond prices generally fall as interest rates rise and vice versa. An issuer may be unable to meet interest and/or principal payments, thereby causing its instruments to decrease in value and lowering the issuer's credit rating.

The information provided is for educational purposes only and does not constitute a recommendation of the suitability of any investment strategy for a particular investor. Invesco does not provide tax advice. The tax information contained herein is general and is not exhaustive by nature. Federal and state tax laws are complex and constantly changing. Investors should always consult their own legal or tax professional for information concerning their individual situation. The opinions expressed are those of the authors, are based on current market conditions and are subject to change without notice. These opinions may differ from those of other Invesco investment professionals.


All data provided by Invesco unless otherwise noted.

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Rating agency default methodologies make internal research more important to municipal investing by Invesco Blog