Short Selling In A Bull Market

by: Greg Blotnick, CFA


S&P 500 and Dow valuations are stretched.

Investors should overweight cash or add short positions.

Certain types of single-stock shorts are better choices than others.

Today's market (SPY, DIA), while not egregiously overpriced, offers poor risk-reward in comparison to the opportunity set investors were presented in the early 1980s: an S&P 500 trading at 8-9x earnings combined with double-digit interest rates in decline. 2017 presents the inverse: a fully-valued market combined with rates at the zero-lower bound and climbing, serving as a headwind to further multiple appreciation. For those of us not forced to be fully invested, this is an ideal environment to overweight cash and begin stalking new short ideas. Here are three of my preferred criteria:


· Investors are easily swayed by the allure of a low trailing P/E ratio. It saves them from having to forecast the future, which requires work, and serves as a simple crutch for justifying an investment to colleagues or investors ("the stock is cheap!"). Experienced investors and short sellers know that a low P/E ratio is the sign of a business facing severe headwinds - either cyclical or secular - and that earnings are likely in decline. Forecasting earnings two or three years out often reveals that what appears to be 10x trailing earnings is a value trap, as the stock is trading at 20x forward or 30x earnings multiple years out.

· For these optically cheap short candidates, secular headwinds are preferable to cyclical. Share prices of cyclicals tend to move swiftly and unexpectedly from the bottom and can quickly lead to large losses, especially businesses with heavy financial and/or operating leverage. At the risk of stating the obvious, the best short candidates are melting ice cubes where the probable outcome is a slow bleed to zero; rather than having to time covering a short, the decision is made for you when the stock gets delisted. Jim Chanos is often asked about the asymmetric upside risk from a short and gives a simple response: "I've seen more stocks go to zero than infinity."


· One under-utilized screen for short candidates: stocks with high retail ownership. The general investing public tends to fall for the usual "Three F's" of short schema (fads, frauds and failures) far more often than professional investors. The ETF/passive boom has spawned profitable short targets as well, particularly decaying levered ETFs or the rise in oxymoron "low-volatility equity" products.

· Other than fads and frauds, yield plays are honey to the retail bee - particularly in the current low-rate market environment. Some recent examples include MLPs/offshore driller drop-downs or other 'yieldco' capital structures that have no fit with the economics of the underlying assets and exist primarily to enrich management at shareholders' expense. Screening for stocks with double-digit dividend yields often reveals short candidates, as the market is signaling the dividend is unsustainable and likely to be cut or suspended entirely. The caveat is that timing these shorts can be difficult as they are most akin to shorting a bond - high cost of carry accompanied by an event where the instrument loses 25%+ of its value overnight.


· David Tepper frequently preaches this: investors often ignore the embedded macro bets they are making. For example, consumer staples today trade at 20-25x earnings despite flat top line and mediocre earnings growth. Why? In an environment with zero and negative bond yields, a 2-3% dividend is a healthy substitute and offers the added benefit of pricing power to offset inflation. The same can be said for some REITs and Utility stocks - it is simply a market truism that stocks occasionally disconnect from fundamentals for long periods of time. If you are short any of these three sectors and rates continue their rapid decline, you will lose money regardless of the business's underlying performance.

· Other examples of dangerous embedded macro bets would be shorting commodity-linked energy or basic material companies. The equity in a distressed and over-levered shale driller may be worthless with WTI crude at $30, $40 or $50 - but being short said driller as crude goes from $30 to $50 can quickly lead to a 500%+ unrealized loss. Pay attention not only to leverage but to how the stock price has historically correlated to the commodity it tracks and what sort of beta it has to the underlying.

Disclosure: I/we have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours.

I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it. I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

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