Hello, my name is Bernardo Teixeira and welcome to my page! I'm currently an undergraduate student of Northeatern University majoring in Finance and Computer Science. My investment focus is majorly in value plays, and sometimes in portfolio strategy and macro trends. Since I'm originally from Brazil and I have lived in China for a few years I have a special passion for emerging market equities and investments outside of the United States. I'm currently following three industries; insurance, semiconductors, and airlines. As always please let me know if you have any comments about my articles! Cheers, Bernardo TeixeiraIn order to value a company we usually apply three different types of valuation:1. Comparable Valuation: If we identify a company has enough comparable companies (usually around 4) and their corporate structures are similar to each other than we would likely value this company through a comparable valuation. In our opinion a comps val is not conclusive enough to know whether a company is being mis-priced by the market, but it provides enough information as to understand which stock of the bunch is the cheapest. Below is one good example of a comparable company and one bad one. A very good example of a stock which we would rely on a comps val is Delta (DAL). Delta is in an industry which there is little product differentiation and airlines have similar corporate structures. In contrast Microsoft (MSFT) is a company which I probably would not use a comps val, because there is no other company that sells the same exact product line as MSFT. In our comps valuation we use two different sets of ratios. Equity multiples such as P/E, P/S, P/B and PEG, and Enterprise multiples such as EV/Sales, EV/EBITDA, EV/FCF and EV/ Gross Cash Flow. We try to have all our ratios in a forward looking manner using average analyst expectations whenever possible. We also might eventually exclude ratios from the calculation that are not conclusive enough or that have a high dispersion among players of the industry. 2. Discounted Cash Flow Valuation: After completing our comps val my next step is to run a DCF valuation of the company. Usually our preference for a DCF is to not effectively predict what is going to happen in the future, but instead identify how the market is pricing the stock and stipulate three scenarios assumptions. These scenarios are used to estimate what are different analyst expecting from this company and whether those expectations are realistic or not. The bull case scenario reflects the highest analyst expectation, the base case the average, and the bear case the lowest. We also adjust margins accordingly as to reflect the opinion of analyst. For stocks that have a wide coverage this usually a good measure of the market's view of the company. In general we are only long companies that have a very attractive risk/reward ratio, in which the bull case fairly outstrip the base and the bear case is not significantly negative.Another assumption we like to make is concerning the discount rates. In our opinion relying on CAPM to calculate the expected rate of returns is a very poor choice. There are many problems with CAPM that are not worth mentioning here. Instead we believe that using a base 8% discount rate subjectively adjusted by it the riskiness of the stock is a better approximation of the discount rate. 3. Return on Invested Capital Valuation: Another type of valuation that we like to use is the ROIC method. I'm still developing a model that can be successfully deployed for Seeking Alpha articles. Once I have it complete I will update our assumptions on our methodology.Companies that we follow: Ping An (PNGAY), PICC (PPCCY), Copa Holdings (CPA), Cameco (CCJ), Qualcomm (QCOM), Noble Energy (NBL), Delta (DAL), Arotech (ARTX).