Through always enjoying the concepts of value creation and business management it has allowed me to explore potential investments at an academic and strategic level. My investment ideas are presented through two sides; with the most important being financial performance and the second most important being valuation. In my opinion, if a company does not meet certain financial criteria, a valuation of that company can only mean something if you are investing in the senior debt at best or if you are purely speculating at worst. Focusing on return on invested capital (ROIC), I classify potential investments as either long-term/indefinite investments, medium-term investments, or value traps. 1) Long-term/Indefinite: ROIC of greater than 9% and able to grow intrinsic value 2) Medium-term: ROIC of 6 – 9% and able to maintain intrinsic value. 3) Value Traps: ROIC of less than 6% and not able to meet their cost of capital My investing philosophy stems from Warren Buffett’s focus on long-term moats and value creation while expanding to include potential growth opportunities from the approach of Peter Lynch. At heart, I am a long-term investor that looks to buy value opportunities at a 30 per cent discount to intrinsic value with the potential to earn over 9 per cent return on equity (ROE) adjusted for the equity value per share that is paid at purchase. I believe growth is always a subjective variable but can be estimated through a product of retained earnings and the companies return on equity given the variability of both in the past decade. Disclaimer: While the information and data presented in my articles are obtained from company documents and/or sources believed to be reliable, they have not been independently verified. The material is intended only as general information for your convenience, and should not in any way be construed as investment advice. I advise readers to conduct their own independent research to build their own independent opinions and/or consult a qualified investment advisor before making any investment decisions. I explicitly disclaim any liability that may arise from investment decisions you make based on my articles.