I will post Dengue Fever and related articles under this heading. The top of the instablog will contain a summary of the subject area definitions of terms, and a summary of Dengue vaccine investment plays.
Much of this review material comes from "The Dengue Update - A CDC Update on a Critical Disease Threat"
Dengue Fever – A Worldwide Threat:
Dengue virus infects up to 100 million people each year. Its impact is magnified by the lack of effective antiviral drugs and vaccines. As many as half a million people develop severe dengue disease each year, a very large proportion of whom are children. About 2.5% of those affected die.
About two fifths of the world's population are now at risk.
Dengue haemorrhagic fever [DHF] is a leading cause of serious illness and death among children in some Asian countries.
Dengue fever can be caused by any one of four serotypes of dengue virus: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4. These viruses are part of the Flavivirus family, which includes West Nile virus and yellow fever virus.
Dengue virus is spread by mosquitoes, and is most common during the rainy seasons throughout the world's tropical and subtropical regions.
Symptoms of Classic Dengue Fever:
Symptoms of classic dengue fever include high fever (up to 105 degrees F), severe headache and/or pain behind the eyes,
severe joint and muscle pain, nausea and vomiting. A few days after fever onset, a rash often develops over most of the body and lasts for one to two days. The rash can reappear several days later. These symptoms typically begin within a week after infection, and usually resolve without treatment.
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever:
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more serious form of disease which can include all of the symptoms of classic dengue fever plus noticeable damage to blood vessels and lymph vessels, bleeding from the nose and gums, and conspicuous bruising under the skin. Dengue hemorrhagic fever can lead to death. The most severe form of dengue disease is dengue shock syndrome, which includes all of the symptoms of classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, plus leaking of blood outside of blood vessels, extensive bleeding, and shock caused by extremely low blood pressure. Dengue shock syndrome most often occurs in children infected for a second time (with a different serotype of dengue), and can be fatal.
Dengue disease, including classic dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, is increasing in both incidence and severity throughout many tropical regions of the world, especially in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia.
Transfusion-associated dengue risk:
Not everyone infected with dengue will have symptoms and, consequently, the virus can be transmitted via blood transfusion or organ transplants. In Puerto Rico, about 1 in 600 blood donations was found to contain virus during the 2007 epidemic, 1 in 1300 during a non-outbreak year. Sensitive, inexpensive tests are not yet available for screening donated blood either in endemic areas or in parts of the mainland most likely to have donors returning from endemic places.
Travel-associated dengue among U.S. residents:
Americans frequently travel for business or pleasure to dengue endemic places in Asia and Latin America, and every year hundreds return infected with dengue. We know that travel-related dengue cases are underreported. Beginning in 2010, dengue will be a nationally reportable disease in the United States.
How travellers can reduce the risk of getting Dengue fever:
Travellers can reduce their risk of getting dengue fever by protecting themselves from mosquito bites. The mosquitoes that spread dengue usually bite at dusk and dawn but may bite at any time during the day, especially indoors, in shady areas, or when the weather is cloudy.
Follow the steps below to protect against mosquito bites:
Where possible, stay in hotels or resorts that are well screened or air conditioned and that take measures to reduce the mosquito population. If the hotel is not well screened, sleep under bed nets to prevent mosquito bites.
When outdoors or in a building that is not well screened, use insect repellent on uncovered skin. If sunscreen is needed, apply before insect repellent.
Look for a repellent that contains one of the following active ingredients: DEET, picaridin (KBR 3023), Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus/PMD, or IR3535. Always follow the instructions on the label when you use the repellent.
In general, repellents protect longer against mosquito bites when they have a higher concentration (percentage) of any of these active ingredients. However, concentrations above 50% do not offer a marked increase in protection time. Products with less than 10% of an active ingredient may offer only limited protection, often no longer than 1-2 hours.
Wear loose, long-sleeved shirts and long pants when outdoors.
o For greater protection, clothing may also be sprayed with repellent containing permethrin or another EPA-registered repellent. (Remember: don't use permethrin on skin.)
Brief Overview of Categories of Dengue Investment Plays:
I - Vaccines / Prevention
1) Production Method / Capacity plays (NASDAQ:NVAX) (NASDAQ:VICL) (NYSE:SNY)
2) Injection / Vaccine support services (syringes etc.) (NYSE:BAX) (NYSE:BDX) (OTC:BJCT)
(STILL UNDER CONSTRUCTION)
Disclosure: NVAX, VICL