By Chris Ebert
Option Index Summary
The Covered Call/Naked Put Index (CCNPI) continued to reveal bullish emotions this week, while the Long Call/Married Put Index (LCMPI) is now showing strength behind those bullish emotions for the first time since May. The Long Straddle/Strangle Index (LSSI), which had been signaling that the market was due for a breakout, returned to normal this week.
It would appear that the bulls finally got what they wanted, a breakout above the 1420 resistance level on the S&P 500 that puts any immediate fears of a meltdown to rest. With bullish emotions now having strength, traders are more likely to view the market through rose colored glasses over the coming weeks. Bad news will be quickly forgotten, while good news will lead to more buying. Other bullish patterns may also return, such as the tendency of markets to open slightly lower in the morning, only for all the bullish traders to step in and buy the dip and send prices higher later in the day.
Covered Call/Naked Put Index (CCNPI) - Continued BULLISH
Because sellers of at-the-money covered calls or naked puts receive a premium from the buyer, either of those trades will result in a profit as long as the underlying price does not fall by a greater amount than the premium received. Generally, when covered calls or naked puts are profitable trades, it is an indication of a bull market. Likewise, when there is a bull market, it is often profitable to sell covered calls or naked puts.
An analysis of the performance of covered calls or naked puts opened a moderately long time prior to expiration (such as 112 days) can be useful:
- In a downtrend - Implied volatility is usually higher than usual and the premiums received on these trades are also higher. It is therefore possible for covered calls or naked puts to become profitable when prices are still falling, but no longer falling quickly enough to outpace the faster time decay of the unusually high premiums. Thus a positive 112-day CCNPI in a downtrend is often a bullish signal that marks the end of a downtrend, while a negative CCNPI generally signals that the downtrend will continue.
- In an uptrend - Implied volatility is generally low and the premiums received are lower as well. Covered calls and naked puts become much more sensitive to corrections in an uptrend, because there is a smaller premium to offset any decline in the underlying stock price. Thus a negative 112-day CCNPI often indicates the market has experienced more of a correction than would be expected in a healthy bull market. A negative 112-day CCNPI in an uptrend is a bearish signal that may mark the end of an uptrend, while a positive CCNPI generally signals that the uptrend will continue.
The 112-day CCNPI remained positive this week, and therefore is an indication of bullish emotions among traders. Determining the strength of these bullish emotions requires a study of the Long Call/Married Put Index (LCMPI).
Long Call/Married Put Index (LCMPI) - Now showing STRENGTH
Because buyers of at-the-money long calls or married puts must pay a premium, these trades will only result in profits when the uptrend occurs quickly enough to offset the loss of value due to time decay.When long calls or married puts are profitable trades, it is an indication of a strong bull market.Likewise, only when there is a strong bull market is it profitable to buy calls or married puts.
An analysis of the performance of long calls or married puts opened a moderately long time prior to expiration (such as 112 days) can be useful:
- At the beginning of an uptrend - Implied volatility usually remains elevated for some time after the previous downtrend has ended, causing the premiums paid to open long calls or married puts to be higher than usual. Long calls and married puts only become profitable when the market has gained sufficient strength to overcome the inflated premiums. Thus, when a previously negative 112-day LCMPI turns positive, it often signals that a bull market has gained strength.
- When an uptrend is well underway - Implied volatility is generally low, and the premiums paid are much lower. Long calls and married puts only become unprofitable when the market has weakened so much that it cannot overcome the relatively low premiums. Thus, a when a previously positive 112-day LCMPI turns negative in an uptrend, it often signals that a bull market is weakening.
The 112-day LCMPI had remained negative since May of this year, indicating that many traders lacked confidence in their bullishness. This week's return of the LCMPI to profitability is a significant change, indicating that bullish emotions are likely to be strong now. Determining whether the bullish emotions, as shown by the CCNPI, and strength of those emotions, as shown by the LCMPI, are justified requires a study of the Long Straddle/Strangle Index (LSSI).
Long Straddle/Strangle Index (LSSI) - Returned to NORMAL
Because buyers of straddles or strangles must pay two premiums, one for the call option and another for the put option, these trades will only result in a profit when the market moves up or down very strongly, so that the gains exceed the combined premiums. When a long straddle or strangle returns a substantial profit it is an indication that traders were taken by surprise - they were complacent and those emotions were later proven to be unjustified when the market moved much more than they had expected. Likewise, when the market is complacent, it can be profitable to buy a straddle or strangle.
When a long straddle or strangle results is a substantial loss, it is also an indication that traders were taken by surprise - they were overly-fearful and those fears were subsequently proven to be unjustified by the market's failure to move.
An analysis of the performance of long straddles or strangles opened a moderately long time prior to expiration (such as 112 days) can be useful:
- In any trend, up or down - The relatively high premium on these trades tend to make them rarely return a profit greater than 4%. Thus, a 112-day LSSI that exceeds 4% often signals that the market has come too far, too fast and may need a correction to satisfy those traders who were previously complacent and subsequently surprised by the move.
- In a range-bound market - The relatively high premium on these trades tends to result in losses, but those losses seldom exceed 6%. A 112-day LSSI that is negative by a greater magnitude than 6% is an indication not only that many traders were previously fearing a selloff, causing an increase in option premiums, but that such a selloff did not materialize. Thus a 112-day LSSI lower than -6% often precedes a breakout that either confirms trader's prior fears or completely puts those fears to rest.
The 112-day LSSI previously indicated that traders were likely to feel that the market was due for a breakout. As many traders returned from vacations after the Labor Day holiday to find a market that was ready for a breakout, any catalysts had the potential to either drive the market through its recent resistance (pushing the S&P well above 1420) or to re-test recent supports (pushing the S&P below 1336, or perhaps even 1280). This week brought just such a catalyst, in the form of reassuring news from Europe, initiating a breakout into the 1430s and returning the LSSI to normal.
Option position returns are extrapolated from historical data that, while reliable, cannot be guaranteed accurate. It is not possible to match the exact performances shown, because the strike prices and expiration dates used in the calculations will not always be available in actual trading. All data is relative to the S&P 500 index.
The preceding is a post by Christopher Ebert, who uses his engineering background to mix and match options as a means of preserving portfolio wealth while outpacing inflation. He studies options daily, trades options almost exclusively, and enjoys sharing his experiences. He recently co-published the book "Show Me Your Options!"
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