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The Latin American Revolutions (Part II)

With their work almost completed, Bolivar and San Martin met at Guayaquil Ecuador to plan the destruction of the Spanish stronghold in Peru (which was centered around the gold and silver mines of that country, including Upper Peru, or modern Bolivia). Eventually, San Martin deferred to Bolivar and sailed off to Europe, leaving the latter in charge of the combined forces. Bolivar's army was about twice as large, and he had cavalry, which had won a crucial horsemen on horsemen battle at Junin, securing the entry of the northern forces into Peru. Bolivar completed the conquest of Peru, while his second in command, Jose Sucre, broke the Spanish grip on what is now Bolivia.

That country was, of course, named after Bolivar, while Sucre gave his name to the country's second-largest city.

As these wars of independence were coming to a successful end, the United States, aka as the Colossus of the North, promulgated the so-called Monroe Doctrine, that basically stated its opposition to European countries trying to reconquer their former colonies.

For instance, Mexico became independent, but Napoleon III tried to reoccupy it with French forces using Maximilian of the Hapsburg family as a figurehead ruler during the American Civil War. But after the North one, Napoleon III wisely pulled out his French forces, leaving Maximilian to be captured and shot by the revolutionaries.

In Brazil, there was a bloodless revolution. After Napoleon Bonaparte occupied  Portugal, the crown prince escaped to Brazil, declared independence on behalf of the colony, and became Brazil's first king Joao. He rightly foresaw that Brazil, now one of the "BRIC" nations, would become a much greater country than his native Portugal.

The revolutions of the North and South Americans had this in common: The lucky inhabitants of these two continents woke up and wondered what a world they could have without their mother countries.