Are you thinking about pulling up stakes when you retire? You may want to move to a state with warm temperatures and lots of sunshine, but there’s also another kind of climate to consider—the tax climate. State taxes as well as federal levies can take a big bite out of retirement income, and some states devour decidedly more than others do. Here are several factors to take into account.
State income taxes. Seven states—Alaska, Florida, Nevada, South Dakota, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming—have no state income tax, and New Hampshire and Tennessee tax only investment dividend income that exceeds specified limits. However, many other states and the District of Columbia provide tax breaks for retirees, so you shouldn’t automatically assume a no-tax state will be the best choice.
Retirement income. Most states that normally tax income provide partial exemptions for pensions. Even better, 10 states fully exempt income received from federal, state, or military pensions. And in Pennsylvania and Mississippi, all retirement income, including distributions from 401(k)s and IRAs, is state tax-free. Some other states impose high income tax rates on retirement income, however, with California leading the way at 9.55% on income of less than $1 million.
Social Security benefits. Up to 85% of the Social Security benefits you receive may be subject to federal income tax. However, the seven no-tax states, 27 others, and Washington, D.C. don’t tax Social Security, though other special rules may apply. For instance, in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah, you must add back a portion of Social Security benefits not taxed on a federal level when determining your eligibility for certain state income tax breaks.
Sales tax. These levies are often overlooked when retirees contemplate a move. On the plus side, five states—Alaska, Delaware, Montana, New Hampshire, and Oregon—currently have no sales tax, and other states may exempt food, medicine, and other necessities. But California has an 8.25% rate, and many cities and counties pile on additional sales tax charges. In Chicago and Los Angeles, you’ll pay a combined rate of 9.75%—the nation’s highest. And things could get worse. In 2009, 649 U.S. cities imposed new sales taxes or increased existing rates, while only 192 reduced sales tax rates (Source: Vertex Inc.).
Property taxes. The property tax burden varies widely throughout the country and even within states. The five states with the lowest median property taxes are Louisiana, Alabama, West Virginia, Mississippi, and Arkansas, while New Jersey, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, and Rhode Island have the highest.