I have over 17 years experience in the hedge fund industry working as a Portfolio Manager, Domestic Equity Analyst and Trader. I was the Portfolio Manager of a domestic Hedged Equity product with gross assets that peaked over 1 Billion dollars, and I have over 18 years experience generating both long and short ideas in domestic equities. I am a fundamental, bottoms up, value investor in long investments, and catalyst oriented short investor. I like to employ technical analysis as a balance to my fundamental work, and also as a risk management characteristic to my overall investment philosophy. I am currently investing my own capital in a similar manner I employed while working in the hedge fund industry.
I am a former Investment and Commercial Banker with over 30 years experience in the field. I have been advising both individuals and institutional clients on high-yield investment strategies since 1991. As author of “High Dividend Opportunities”, a premium subscription service at Seeking Alpha, my objective is to bring investors the most profitable and newest high dividend ideas, with special focus on the Energy sector. The service includes an actively managed model Portfolio targeting an overall dividend yield of 6-9% in addition to long-term capital gains. My research aims to maximize returns by identifying undervalued securities in the High Yield space.
In addition to being a Certified Public Accountant CPA from the State of Arizona, I hold a BS Degree from Indiana University, Bloomington, and a Masters degree from Thunderbird School of Global Management (Arizona). I am also a Certified Mortgage Advisor CEMAP, a UK certification. My Research and Articles have been featured on Seeking Alpha, Investing.com, ETFdailynews, and on FXEmpire.
For more information on how to subscribe to “High Dividend Opportunities” and gain exclusive access to the portfolio, live alerts and market commentaries, check the post: Introduction to “High Dividend Opportunities” on my Instablog or just email me at firstname.lastname@example.org .
Graduated in 2011 with degrees in Pre-Law and Business Administration from Eastern Washington University. Completed my MBA at Whitworth University in May of 2017. Began career as a Loan Officer, but am now working for Umpqua Bank as a Secondary Marketing Financial Analyst.
Started my first Roth IRA at the age of 16, but began seriously investing closer to 2011 at the age of 22. My investment strategy is largely focused on generating retirement income from dividend-paying stocks. I do not hold any professional investment licenses, but I spend a significant amount of time educating children, teenagers, and young adults on basic finance. I also specialize in cash-flow analysis for those nearing retirement or who are in retirement.
Individual investor focused upon a limited number of diversified stocks. Seeks stocks selling below fair value; favors dividend growth. Advocates fundamental investment analysis, supplemented by the technical charts. Options strategies primarily employed to generate additional income or hedge risk.
Lead Wealth Advisor, Chief Investment Strategist, and individual investor with two masters degrees and a CFA designation who has been in the business for over 20 years. Along with our team we author the Seeking Alpha premium subscription service "YIELD HUNTING: Alternative Income Investing" dedicated to income investors who are searching for yield without the high risk of the equity market.
We feature a core-satellite model that allows investors to adjust for their own particular risk tolerance. We specialize in fixed income closed-end funds for generating income during retirement, micro and small-cap value investing, and macro analysis.
My name is Phil Mause. I am a Senior Advisor with the Pacific Economics Group, focusing on energy, regulatory and valuation issues. I retired from 40 years of law practice earlier this year. I am a yield oriented investor and in the last two years, I have done reasonably well in junk bonds, BDCs, mortgage REITS, and dividend paying blue chip stocks. As an avocation, I dabble in stand up comedy.
Nicholas Marshi is the Editor of the BDC Reporter (www.bdcreporter.com), the leading online publication dedicated to the Business Development Company ("BDC") sector. The BDC Reporter is read by thousands of individual and institutional investors for its broad and incisive coverage of this $60bn segment of the financial sector. Since 2008, Mr Marshi has also been a frequent contributor to Seeking Alpha, penning hundreds of articles and blog posts. Mr Marshi is also the Chief Investment Officer of Southland Capital Management (SCM), a Registered Investment Adviser based in Los Angeles, California. SCM manages investment portfolios, both for its own account and those of third parties, solely in the publicly traded securities of BDCs. Since 2009 SCM has also managed a "friends and family" investment fund focused on the BDC sector, which has recently opened up to third party accredited investors. Prior to forming SCM, Mr. Marshi managed two private equity firms. Both firms were active in acquiring lower middle market private companies, principally in Southern California. Before getting into Private Equity, Mr Marshi was the head of the Los Angeles office of Kleinwort Benson Limited, a British merchant bank, from 1987-1990. Mr Marshi was involved in investment banking, lending and principal investing activities. At the outset of his career, Mr Marshi held various positions with Citibank at locations worldwide including Athens, Dubai, Puerto Rico and London. Mr Marshi is a graduate of Tufts University (B.A.) and Harvard University (M.A.).
*Our best ideas are reserved for members-only. Consider joining The Value & Income Forum. Our objective is to help you identify exceptional investment opportunities.
Blue Harbinger is an independent investment research company founded and managed by Mark D. Hines. Mr. Hines is a two-decade industry veteran with experience managing a variety of multi-million and multi-billion dollar investment accounts. He holds an MBA from the University of Chicago, Booth School of Business, and a Bachelor of Science in Finance from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Intrepid Leader at Maks Financial Services providing ongoing Financial Planning and Investment Advisory services. My firm and I simplify the lives of busy clients by providing ongoing financial planning and asset management. this is done by providing our clients customized, ongoing comprehensive financial planning, and customized investment advisory services tailored to the clients' needs. As a fiduciary, we have a legal obligation to put the needs and interests of our clients above our own. Specialties: fee based comprehensive financial planning, retirement planning, life insurance and protection planning.
BS in Economics, MA in Public Policy (International Economics). J is a well-known voice in the global shipping community, with unparalleled investment results and a penchant for activist investing.
Mintzmyer founded Value Investor's Edge, a top-ranked deep value research service in May 2015, with the goal of establishing a top-tier community of deep value investors and activists. Value Investor's Edge subscribers leverage exclusive in-depth analytic reports and community investment experience to discover disconnects in global shipping and a variety of other beaten down sectors.
TipRanks.com ranked Mintzmyer’s performance in the top 3% of all global analysts at the end of 2015 for his 2-year investment performance. While compiling his research, Mintzmyer has interviewed numerous management teams at public maritime firms, and has worked with a multitude of investors. His exclusive analysis has received numerous 'Top Idea,' 'Must Read,' and 'Small Cap Insight' awards.
J is a CFA candidate and investment enthusiast who utilizes Seeking Alpha to provide an open exchange of both trading and investment ideas. Masters in Public Policy, with focus on International Security & Economic Policy from the University of Maryland, College Park. Distinguished Graduate of the United States Air Force Academy with a B.S. in Economics. President of Mintzmyer Investments LLC, a financial services company specializing in equity research and hedge fund advisory.
Extensive background in financial analysis, equity research, accounting, portfolio management, and customized asset allocation through nearly a decade of formalized education, personal studies, and practical experience. Avid reader of business/investments and biographies.
Legal Disclaimer: Any related contributions to Seeking Alpha, or elsewhere on the web, are to be construed as personal opinion only and do NOT constitute investment advice. An investor should always conduct personal due diligence before initiating a position. Provided articles and comments should NEVER be construed as official business recommendations. In efforts to keep full transparency, related positions will be disclosed at the end of each article to the maximum extent practicable. The majority of trades are reported live on Twitter, but this cannot be guaranteed due to technical constraints.
My premium service is a research and opinion subscription. No personalized investment advice will ever be given. I am not registered as an investment adviser, nor do I have any plans to pursue this path. No statements should be construed as anything but opinion, and the liability of all investment decisions reside with the individual. Although I do my utmost to procure high quality information, investors should always do their own due diligence and fact check all research prior to making any investment decisions. Any direct engagements with readers should always be viewed as hypothetical examples or simple exchanges of opinion as nothing is ever classified as “advice” in any sense of the word.
Steven Bavaria writes about finance, economics and politics, drawing on his forty-five years experience in international banking, credit, investment, human resources/training, journalism and public service. Now retired from his "day job" on Wall Street, Bavaria lives mostly off his investments. His focus is largely on income-oriented stocks, bonds and mutual funds, as well as closed-end funds, ETFs and other IRA-suitable investments. His book "Too Greedy for Adam Smith: CEO Pay and the Demise of Capitalism" was just published and is available on Amazon and at independent retailers.
Bavaria began his career at the Bank of Boston, where he handled international credit workouts that included managing a fleet of ships, chasing a Vatican-owned bank in Switzerland, and leading the turnaround of troubled branches in Australia and Panama. He also ran the bank's human resources department, which is where he saw personally the beginnings of many of today's executive compensation excesses.
More recently he worked at Standard & Poor's, where he introduced ratings to the leveraged loan market. In between Bank of Boston and S&P he was Assoc. Commissioner of the Massachusetts Dept. of Mental Health, worked briefly for Citibank, and was a reporter for IDD Magazine. He also did a short stint at a smaller rating agency where he had to leave in a hurry after writing an article called "From Banker to Bookmaker" that was deemed a bit too candid in describing the conflicted role of major commercial and investment banks.
Bavaria graduated from Georgetown University and New England School of Law. He lives in Boca Raton, Florida.
I joined Seeking Alpha as a Senior Editor in June 2012, and left to pursue other opportunities in late 2016. I managed the Dividends, Income & Retirement and Expert Insight platforms. D&I focuses on income investment strategies and dividend investment-focused content for investors from the accumulation stage to retirement. The purpose of Expert Insight is to expand and elevate the quality of Seeking Alpha's content by including articles from an industry insider's point of view, designed to help investors make more informed decisions as they consider specific sectors and trends within those sectors for their investing strategies, e.g., utilities or technology. Expert Insight articles offer more of a macro, 30,000-foot-view that goes beyond investment analysis or stock recommendations. I also curated the Dividends & Income Digest, a bi-weekly publication that takes a look at a question that is compelling and relevant to the community, showcases the responses of DI thought leaders, and serves as a round-up of top DI articles. I have a particular interest in retirement-related content, particularly with regard to using a dividend strategy to create a steady income stream for those golden years.
Retired, late 50's
Hold CFP designation. Passed CFP exam Nov 2000
Author of "IRA: A Quck Reference Guide". Available on Amazon as an e-book.
Author of "Retirement Investing for INCOME ONLY: How to invest for relaible income in Retirement ONLY from Dividends"
I'm a self-directed investor who shares my experience in investing. I read, learn, and apply every day.
I write about value, dividend, and growth investing from the perspective of a Canadian. I invest in individual stocks on the US stock exchanges and the Toronto Stock Exchange.
As I write, I reflect on my own actions and results, which is an amazing exercise. I encourage individual investors who enjoy writing to try it.
I appreciate the work done by SA staff & authors and love the SA community that engages in meaningful discussions.
Mr. Berger is the creator and developer of the YDP screening tool, a chart system and its analysis for screening and monitoring dividend income equity investments. The recipient of Seeking Alpha's Outstanding Performance Award, he also has been Seeking Alpha's #3 ranked Author for Income Investing Strategy & #4 for Utilities.
20 years of sitting in the board room gives me unique insights into Oil & Gas investments and corporate deal making in general. Additionally, he offers a Premium Research subscription service for boosting income while reducing market risk using covered option writing on a dividend income equity portfolio.
Residing in Brazil gives me a local's inside view on the pulse of its economy, politics, investment climate and breaking news. A view of my front yard is available here.
A former Chief Operating Officer, Director, Vice President and General Manger of Oil and Gas for Southern Pacific's Oil and Gas Operations, Business owner, geologist, and cribbage player, I've been an investor for over 48 years (started young at 13) and learned my lessons the way that makes them stick, by hard knocks and both big and little mistakes. Hopefully I can share some of those lessons with others.
I am an American expatriate that decided to retire at age 57 in 2009 and now live in Brazil. As an early retiree I invest for income and manage portfolio risk by screening for strong and reliable historic data along with favorable fundamental and technical current trends.
I spend 6 months/year living at home in Brazil and 6 months/year traveling the world. I have structured my financial positions so that I live virtually tax free with much of my income exempt from US tax since I live ex patriot and a lot of my US derived income over the annual ex-patriate exemptions is held in my tax free ROTH and tax deferred IRA/SIMPLE plans. This enables my tax savings to pay for my 6 months of annual traveling :) .
My investing is for income and appreciation with a balance of low to moderate short term risk and low long term risk. To accomplish this I use quality dividend payors with a long track record of steady or increasing dividends along with slowly appreciating equity prices. I target a 6 to 9 % yield and almost exclusively require a minimum history of 5 years of steady/increasing dividends and no decreases in dividend ever or at least past 10 years. I diversify through sector, country and currency unit the stocks are traded in, and security type (equity, royalty trust, REIT, mlp, etf, and ADRs).
I use covered call writing to enhance my portfolio yield with no added risk. In fact, it lowers the risk substantially. Once I identify a stock I want to own and an entry price for it, I write cash covered puts at or below that entry price (with a minimum of 1%/month time premium. Thus i obtain at least a 12% annualized yield before compounding just from the option premium.
Likewise, I use the sale of cash covered puts to generate income and and generally get an entry point at 5 to 10% below my acceptable entry level price if/when the put stock does get presented. Thus my strategy provides a 12% pre compound yield on cash and entry into stock purchases at a 5 to 10% discount from "retail".
Because I only select stocks that I am willing to hold long term for their reliable dividend yields of > 6%, I am not concerned much with market volatility or short/midterm risk. Indeed, market volatility is my friend since it increases the premiums paid on the options I sell. I also selectively sell covered calls on positions I hold long so as to add to my yield that way while not taking on any additional risk.
This strategy has kept me happily living off my portfolio income and traveling 1/2 the year while my portfolio has been slowly increasing in value even after my harvesting income for living expenses. Of course my income will incrementally increase when social security kicks in for me in a few more years and I may then slightly mofidy my goals and strategies.
Readers can get an e-mail once a day from Seeking Alpha that lists all newly published articles of ALL the authors they follow in a single e-mail. To get these updates:
- a - Click "Alerts" along the top menu tab (just left of the green PRO tab)
- b - Scroll all the way down, and check the box for "author alerts" (2nd box from the bottom)
- c - Then you'll be notified by Seeking Alpha once per day of new articles by all authors you follow (in a single e-mail)
Retired Pharmacist. Call me Rose. Nose= Knows enough to know I need to keep learning and keeping a great dividend paying nest egg growing upwards. I also enjoy total return, but it is not my primary goal, it just happens to follow when buying great quality companies.
My 85+ stock portfolio is listed here by sector, largest holding by value is listed first. Updated 7/18//2017.
Consumer Defensive (16): PM, KO, GIS, MO, KMB, TGT, DEO, PG, CVS, PEP, SJM, MDLZ, BUD, CL, KHC, HSY -
Consumer Cyclical (8): NKE, MCD, HD, VFC, GPC, SBUX, TSCO,- MAT (hopefully will be sold soon using options)-
Healthcare (8): JNJ, ABBV, PFE. CAH, AMGN, BDX , MDT, BMY, -
Energy (8): XOM, RDS/B , OXY, BP. CVX, VLO, AMLP, mystery stock to be named in the future -
Tech (2): CSCO, ADP -
Industrial(6): BA, CMI, MMM, LMT, UNP, GWW -
Financial (7): MA, V, TROW, NRZ (mREIT), MET -Mystery mREIT & CEF
BDCs (5): NEWT, GAIN , MRCC, HTGC, TPVG
REAL ESTATE or Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) or Equity REITs:
Healthcare (3) : OHI, VTR,SNR -
Misc (13): WPC, DLR, STAG, WPG, SPG, STOR, SKT, KIM, APLE, CLDT, CIO-(new and small), -WPGpH
Telecom (2): VZ and T -
Utility (8): SO, D, XEL, MGEE, WEC, DNP, LNT, CNP -
DNP is a CEF which predominately holds Utilities.
Free pdf Download of the Book by Lowell Miller
"The Single Best Investment"
I am interested in small capitalized companies with a high optionality to the upside compared to the relative downside risk. I am grounded in a value based approach but will also explore special situations. I am a trained CPA and continue to practice in industry.
Warning: my twitter account is very random but will have a lot of economic and business items sprinkled with Green Bay Packer comments.
I've been an investment analyst and financial writer since 2012. I hold a Bachelor's degree in Finance from DePaul University, and an MBA in Finance from the University of Notre Dame.
I'm a 66-year-old investor focused on dividends in a Retirement Income Portfolio.
I've been a member of BetterInvesting.org since 1982 (formerly the National Association of Investment Clubs). For many years as a volunteer I helped lead workshops to teach tools developed by NAIC to educate investors about how to do basic fundamental stock analysis. I continue to have a strong interest in investor education.
Better Investing's "four principles" have been very helpful to me:
1) invest regularly throughout your lifetime;
2) invest in growth companies;
3) reinvest earnings and profits;
4) diversify by industry and size.
Bill Bengen's "4% Rule" inspired my goal to design a retirement portfolio of individual dividend growth stocks as a way to tap only dividend income from the portfolio as long as possible rather than selling assets.
Some things I've gleaned from mentors and colleagues:
- Peter Lynch's conviction that the average person, with some study and discipline, can make good decisions about stocks;
- Louis Rukeyser's ability to ask probing questions about the market;
- From The Intelligent Investor, Benjamin Graham's focus on value;
- From Better Investing columns, Charles Allmon's skill in finding growth stocks that also had the virtues of value and income;
- Brad Thomas' analysis real estate investment trusts;
- Bob Wells' disciplined search for dividend growth;
- From The Single Best Investment, Lowell Miller's focus on quality and safety;
- David Van Knapp's ability to keep the big picture in mind when designing a portfolio;
- David Fish's dedication to monitor consistent dividend growth;
- Factoids' distillation and dissemination of mounds of data;
- Chowder's determination to buy and hold quality businesses;
- BDC Buzz's clarity about the risks business development companies;
- Tom Konrad's commitment to alternative energy investments;
- George Fisher's insights about utility opportunities;
- The Seeking Alpha community--both veterans and young contributors.
Emphasis on small/mid cap, oil & gas, utilities, and high yield plays. Main focus is on a dividend driven strategy with a long-term horizon. My articles express my own opinion. I see my articles as jumping points for readers to further research. I highly encourage that anyone looking to invest does his/her own research beforehand. Feel free to message me here on Seeking Alpha with any comments or concerns.
If you are interested in any of my digital utility solutions to add to your investing tool box to improve your investment outcomes, please visit my site
You'll find elegant applications that make it simple for you to track your portfolio in real time, make a watch list to follow in real time, track your dividend income and growth, and other applications. These applications will allow you to set alerts at prices you choose in order to obtain the yield and income that you want. They function as real time trade assistants and will improve your investment performance. You can even mirror the successful FTG Portfolio with "My FTG Mirror Calculator", and subscribers can mirror the premium subscriber portfolio with "MY RODAT Mirror Calculator" if they wish to emulate the out performance we've achieved in capital and income growth.
I am a retired clinical psychologist, and administrator and owner of a rehabilitation clinic we founded 40 years ago. For over 55 years I have managed several portfolios composed of investments accumulated over our professional careers. Since the financial crisis of 2008, I have employed specialized, customized dividend growth strategies aimed at enhancing and growing a dividend income stream.
Since December 24, 2014, I have demonstrated on Seeking Alpha the ongoing construction and portfolio management of the Fill-The-Gap Portfolio aimed at highlighting strategies investors may utilize to close the gap between an average Social Security benefit and the much greater costs faced in retirement.
This portfolio has outperformed all of the broad market indexes by a very wide margin, growing dividend income and total portfolio value consistently while the broader indexes struggle in negative territory all year.
Aside from free articles available to the general public, additional early-access, value-added ideas and deep-dive articles are offered to paid subscribers on my premium SA platform, "Retirement: One Dividend At A Time"
Let me show you how to build and grow your portfolio and dividend income, step by step, towards a comfortable and secure retirement.
I was first interested in stocks and investing while in High School. With my first job I saved a significant portion of that and put it into various instruments i.e. Roth IRA and stocks mostly. I started college for Business Administration and continued teaching myself principles of investing and savings and good personal finance. I graduated with an MBA in Financial Planning from California Lutheran University in May of 2011.
I have not worked in any capacity as a financial analyst but have significant experience in stock analysis mainly using fundamental methods but have recently started using technical analysis as well. A significant portion of my free time is spent with this hobby and I have a lot at stake as I have been investing roughly 40% of my salary for the last 16 years. I have a significant nest egg at the moment and hope to be partially retired within 5 years by 2019. I have been building a property rental and investment business and continue to build that and expand that.
What does the future bring for me? I hope to continue building and growing my business as well as publish articles on investing and start a blog in the future as well.
I seek to liberate investors from the chains of borrowed opinions by teaching metric awareness that leads to the formation of your own opinions. I am a retail investor that gathers, processes and analyzes significantly more data than average. I share that data in my articles. I let the data do the talking. I am only taking dictation as the data tells its message.
I am a retired college faculty in Philosophy, with specializations in Ethics, Socio-political Theory and Rational Choice/Decision Theory. My teaching focus was on Business Ethics, Medical Ethics and Logic. After retirement I freelanced as a Grant Writer/Fund Raising Consultant. I have taught at Washington University in St. Louis, the University of Missouri - St. Louis, and St. Louis Community College.
I believe that potential investments ought to be evaluated through an examination of their fundamentals - i.e., fundamental analysis. Those investments can then be analyzed with respect to whatever criteria an investor may wish to bring to bear, but at least the investments they make will be more or less fundamentally sound. For me, one of the more important features of an investment (after fundamentals are satisfied) is dividend yield. I expect my investment to earn money for me.
I also believe that the day of the "traditional" investment strategy based on one's age/proximity to retirement is over. To be sure, one wants to put one's money in places where it is more secure, but in the day and age of internet-based investment services, a variety of ETFs, and reasonably safe investment vehicles, there is no need for retired people to stick the bulk of their assets in relatively unprofitable treasury notes and bonds.
I focus on investments in the renewable energy, oil & gas, and MLP sectors with an eye for dividend income growth and long-term capital appreciation. I typically allocate a portion of my own portfolio and devote some of my Seeking Alpha articles to small and medium sized companies offering compelling risk/reward propositions. I am an engineer, not a qualified investment advisor. While the information and data presented in my articles are obtained from company documents and/or sources believed to be reliable, they have not been independently verified. Therefore, I cannot guarantee its accuracy. I advise investors conduct their own research and/or consult a qualified investment advisor. I explicitly disclaim any liability that may arise from investment decisions you make based on my articles. Thanks for reading and I wish you much success with your investments.
Reuben Gregg Brewer spent about 15 years at world renowned Value Line, the Publisher of The Value Line Investment Survey. During this time he worked in various facets of the company's research efforts, including equities, mutual funds, convertibles, and options. For six years, he directed all of the company's research efforts as Value Line's Executive Director of Research. Today he writes about the things that interest him.
Eli Inkrot is a writer. Check out his website: thecurrencyoftime.com, his articles here on Seeking Alpha or his book - "You Don't Have A Money Problem" - on Amazon.com.
Additionally, here is a quick bio:
Eli has held the title of Vice President and Portfolio Manager at EDMP Inc. - a money management firm - along with Vice President for F.A.S.T. Graphs - a financial software company.
Prior to that, he began his investment career as an analyst in private real estate for a public pension fund. During his time in real estate he was the lead for a variety of accounts with net asset values totaling nearly two billion dollars. Eli received a Master’s in Finance from the University of Tampa where he earned “highest honors” whilst receiving the distinction of being named the “most outstanding graduate student.” He also holds undergraduate degrees in both Economics and Business Administration from Otterbein University, graduating “magna cum laude” with distinct honors in each major. During his tenure at Otterbein, Eli was a member of the varsity golf team, held the departmental Senator position for Business, Economics and Accounting and studied abroad in the Netherlands.
I am an individual investor and the author of seven eBooks on dividend growth investing. I try to help self-directed individual investors profit from stock investing. I contribute articles and studies to both Seeking Alpha and Daily Trade Alert. I hold an undergraduate degree in physics from Holy Cross College and a JD from Georgetown University. My wife Sue and I live in beautiful Canandaigua, NY.
I have been interested in the market my entire life. From my first equity purchase when I was 15- Chrysler just before the government bailout to managing the portfolio of my father- and outperforming the major indexes with lower risk for over 20 years, I have been attracted to the intellectual and financial challenges of identifying opportunity and making above average returns- again on a risk adjusted basis.
Professionally, I am currently the CFO of a post-start up software development company with a focus on mobile telecom applications. I have served as the CFO,COO, CRO and President of public and private companies. My academic background includes a BS in accounting from the University of Illinois and an MBA in finance and corporate strategy from the University of Michigan. I have CPA and CGMA designations.
Generally, I seek outsized appreciation opportunities with below average risk and often favor stocks that have downside protection through one or more of the following- robust dividend yield, high book value, cash balance or other backstop. I tend to shy away from momentum stocks and those with very high PEs or PEGs.